MISURE INDUSTRIALI

MISURE INDUSTRIALI

_
iten
Codice
60157
ANNO ACCADEMICO
2019/2020
CFU
12 cfu al 2° anno di 8731 INGEGNERIA ELETTRICA (LM-28) GENOVA
SETTORE SCIENTIFICO DISCIPLINARE
ING-INF/07
LINGUA
Italiano (Inglese a richiesta)
SEDE
GENOVA (INGEGNERIA ELETTRICA )
periodo
Annuale
materiale didattico

PRESENTAZIONE

Inquadramento della strumentazione per le misure dei parametri elettrici e fisici necessari per la supervisione ed il controllo dei processi industriali nell’ambito più vasto della Automazione Industriale. Introduzione dei concetti essenziali di comunicazione digitale e di fieldbus per applicazioni industriali (con approfondimento su protocolli Profinet e IEC 61850). Il concetto di Intelligent Field Device e di automazione distribuita.

OBIETTIVI E CONTENUTI

OBIETTIVI FORMATIVI

Le misure nel contesto dell'automazione industriale. Misure elettriche e di processo. Strumentazione e attuatori. Architettura dei sistemi di acquisizione dati e di automazione. Programmazione di PLC. Comunicazione industriale: fieldbus. Norme di riferimento. Sicurezza funzionale. Aree con pericolo di esplosione.

Modalità didattiche

- lezioni frontali

- esercitazioni e prove pratiche

- visite a impianti

PROGRAMMA/CONTENUTO

Instrumentation for the Industrial Automation

         1        Conceptual model of the Industrial Automation

                   .a) measurement and control -> accuracy and repetibility

                   .b) process – instrumentation – control – actuators

                        .c) the role of Computer Engineer

         2        Goal of the automation in different areas

                   .a) Continuous Process -> regolation -> DCS

                        .b) Factory Automation -> sequences -> PLC

                        .c) Service Networks -> supervision -> SCADA

                        .d) Building Automation -> supervision -> SCADA

         4        Conceptual model of a Transmitter

                   .a) sensor -> processing -> signal 

                        .b) microprocessor-based instruments

                        .c) axiliary power supply (summary)

            5        Actuators

                   .a) on-off electric: relays and motor starters

                        .b) on-off pneumatic: electro-valve

                        .c) continuous electric: drives

                        .d) continuous pneumatic: actuators and positioners for valves

         6        Standard signals (analog and digital)

                   .a) on/off signal (SPDT)

                   .b) current/voltage signals

                        .c) signals with live-zero

                        .d) instruments with 2/4-wires

         7        The concept of Fieldbus

                   .a) A/D conversions

                        .b) network of devices in field: the fieldbus

                        .c) reduction of cabling

                        .d) the need of a standard

 

2      The Project of an Automation System

         1        Data-flow and People

                   .a) process expert and automation expert

                        .b) functional specifications

         2        P&ID

                   .a) ISA symbols for instrumentation

                        .b) Process & Instrumentation Diagram

         3        The I/O List

                   .a) goal of the I/O list            

                        .b) typical I/O list

 

 

3      Electrical measures in industrial environment

         1        One-Line diagram

                   .a) which variable to measure

                        .b) measuring the Power Quality

         2        PTs and CTs

                   .a) CT for masures and protection

                        .b) the limit factor for CTs

                        .c) PTs for measures and protection

                               .d) fiscal measuring (the MID Directive)

         3        Multi-functions transducers

                   .a) block diagram of a digital instrument

                        .b) typical accuracy

                        .c) output signals and interfaces

 

4      Measurement of Temperature

         1        Generalità

                   .a) measuring units

                        .b) thermometers: operating principles

                        .c) thermostats: operating principles

         2        Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

                     .a) operating principles

                        .b) standards and accuracy

                        .c) problems with installation

         3        Thermocouples (TC)

                     .a) operating principles

                        .b) standards and accuracy

                        .c) problems with installation

 

         4        Other sensors

                   .a) thermistors

                        .b) pirometers

                        .c) innovative sensors (optic, acustic, ...)

         5        Installation of the Instruments

                   .a) construction shapes

                        .b) thermo-wells

 

5      Measurement of Pressure

         1        Generalità

                        .a) measuring units

                        .b) absolute-relative-differential pressure

                        .c) manometers: operating principles

                        .d) pressure switches: operating principles

         2        Sensors for pressure

                   .a) strain gauge

                        .b) piezo-electric

                        .c) capacitive

                        .d) other sensors: resonant, optic, ...

         3        Installation of the Instruments

                   .a) root valves and piping

                        .b) manifolds

 

6      Measurement of Flow

         1        General

                   .a) flow measurement for solids and fluids

                        .b) flowmeters: operating principles

                        .c) flow-switches: operating principles

         2        Volumetric systems

                   .a) gears

                        .b) turbines

                        .c) target type

                        .d) Rangeability and reliability

         3        Restricted area devices    

                   .a) the Law of Bernoulli

                        .b) pressure profile

                        .c) primary elements: flanges, nozzles, venturi-pipes, pitot-pipes

                        .d) installation problems

         4        Magnetic flowmeters

                   .a) the Faraday Law

                        .b) structure of a mag flowmeter

                        .c) accuracy and rangeability

                        .d) sizing and installation

            5        Vortex transmitter

                   .a) The vortexes of Von Karman

                        .b) structure of a vortex flowmeter

                        .c) accuracy and rangeability

                        .d) sizing and installation

 

         6        Mass flowmeter

                   .a) the concept of mass-flow

                        .b) The law of Coriolis

                        .c) accuracy and rangeability

                        .d) sizing and installation

                       

         7        Other sensors for flow-metering

                   .a) ultrasonic

                        .b) thermal mass

 

7      Measurement of Level

         1        General

                   .a) levels of bulk material and liquids

                        .b) gauge and switch

         2        Electro-mechanical systems

                   .a) glass indicators

                        .b) measuring rods and ropes

                        .c) flow sensors

                        .d) rotating blades

                        .e) vibration sensors

                        .f) jo-jo sensors

                        .g) torque bar

                        .h) conductive sensors

         3        Hydrostatic pressure transmitters

                   .a) physical priciple

                        .b) pressurized and atmospheric tanks

                        .c) installation criteria

                        .d) submerged probe

         4        Capacitive transmitters

                   .a) physical priciple

                        .b) shapes and materials

                        .c) installation criteria

         5        Fly-time measuring systems

                   .a) ultrasonic transmitters

                        .b) micro-waves transmitters

                        .c) areas of application

                        .d) installation criteria

         6        Radioactive transmitters (summary)

                   .a) physical principle

                        .b) typical applications

 

8      Fieldbus for Process Control

         1        Intelligent Field Device

                   .a) the concept of IFD

                        .b) advanced functions of IFD

                        .c) Smart instruments (Hart protocol)

         2        The concept of Communication Protocol

                   .a) the ISO/OSI model

                        .b) physical layer

                        .c) data link: data structure

                        .d) data link: Media Access Control

                        .e) transportation and networking (TCP/IP)

                        .f) application layer

                        .g) the companion standards (profiles)

         3        Internation standards for fieldbus

                   .a) from the beginnings to the IEC 61158

                        .b) standards for fieldbus todays

                        .c) Ethernet-based protocols

         4        Basic priciples of Profibus

                   .a) Profibus DP: principles and applications

                        .b) Profibus PA: principles and applications

                        .c) Specific profiles: ProfiSafe, ProfiDrive, ProfiEnergy

                        .d) Profinet

         5        Basic principles of Foundation Fieldbus

                   .a) level H1 and HSE

                        .b) Link Active Scheduler

                        .c) FF and distributed programming

         7        Wireless Sensor Networks

                   .a) industrial applications for wireless

                        .b) IEEE 802.11: WiFi

                        .c) IEEE 802.15: Bluetooth

                        .d) IEEE 802.15.4: ZigBee

                        .e) hybrid architectures (gateway)

 

 

9      Automation Systems and Architectures

         1        The levels of automation

                   .a) multi-levels architectures: from the field to the control room

                        .b) distributed vs. concentrated architettures

                        .c) ERP and MES (summary)

                        .d) Internet: problems of security

         2        Operating principles of PLC/DCS/SCADA

                   .a) HW components: CPU, I/O cards, Power Supply, ...

                        .b) functional cyucles

         3        IEC 61131-3 programming languages   

                   .a) origin and use of the IEC 61131-3

                   .b) ladder diagram

                        .c) instruction list

                        .d) structured text

                        .e) function block language

                        .f) Sequencial Function Chart

                        .g) PC-based architectures

         4        OLE for Process Control

                   .a) interface between applications and controllers

                        .b) the benefits of OPC

                        .c) future deveolpment (OPC-UA)

 

         5        Hazardous Areas classification (ATEX)

                   .a) flammable materials and explosions

                        .b) The ATEX Directive

                        .c) classification for gas and dust

                        .d) safety electrical plants

         6        Functional Safety (SIL)

                   .a) The concept of functional safety

                        .b) The IEC 60508

                        .c) SIL and automation architectures

 

10     Automation of electrical systems

         1        Automation functions for distribution systems HV/MV/LV

                   .a) supervision and remote control

                        .b) switch-over and emergency logics

                        .c) conventional architectures

         2        Intelligent Electrical Device

                   .a) digital protective relays

                        .b) advanced functions of digital relays

         3        A primer about IEC 61850

                   .a) origins of the IEC 61850

                        .b) the concept of logical node

                        .c) GOMSFE and GSE

                        .d) distributed automation with IEC 61850

TESTI/BIBLIOGRAFIA

Riferimenti bibliografici:

[1]     A. Brunelli : “Strumentazione di misura e controllo nelle applicazioni industriali” Ed. GISI, 2002, ISBN 88-903-7314-8

[2]     L.A. Bryan, E.A. Bryan: “Programmable Controllers – Theory and Implementation”, ISBN 0-944107-32-X

[3]     N.P.Mahalik (a cura di), “Fieldbus Technology – Industrial Network Standards for Real-Time Distributed Control”, ISBN 3-540-40183-0

[4]     F.Cascetta (a cura di), “Strumentazione di misura per sistemi di telecontrollo di reti idriche di pubblica utilità”, ISBN 88-464-1565-5

[5]     P.Pinceti, “SCADA per sistemi elettrici”, ISBN 88-464-4991-6

[6]     P.Pinceti, “L’impianto di distribuzione in Media Tensione”, ISBN 978-88-904026-0-9

[7]     ASEM, “Personal Automation – L’automazione industriale basata su PC”, ISBN 88-481-1475-X

[8]     J.Berge, “Fieldbuses for Process Control”, ISBN 1556177607

 

 

Siti Web utili:

[1]     www.isa.org

[2]     www.iec.ch

[3]     www.ieee.org

[4]     www.gisi.it

[5]     www.anie.it

[6]     www.assoautomazione.it

[7]     www.control.com

[8]     www.opcfoundation.org

[9]     www.profibus.com

[10]    www.fieldbus.org

 

Riviste del settore:

[1]     Automazione e Strumentazione

[2]      Fieldbus e Network

[3]      InTech

[4]      Control Engineering

[5]      IEEE Instrumentation & Measurements

[6]      Eidos

[7]      Automazione Oggi    

[8]      Tutto Misure

 

 

DOCENTI E COMMISSIONI

Ricevimento: Q&A on-line attraverso aulaweb Incontri su appuntamento

LEZIONI

Modalità didattiche

- lezioni frontali

- esercitazioni e prove pratiche

- visite a impianti

INIZIO LEZIONI

come da calendario didattico

ESAMI

Modalità d'esame

Scritto