Inquadramento della strumentazione per le misure dei parametri elettrici e fisici necessari per la supervisione ed il controllo dei processi industriali nell’ambito più vasto della Automazione Industriale. Introduzione dei concetti essenziali di comunicazione digitale e di fieldbus per applicazioni industriali (con approfondimento su protocolli Profinet e IEC 61850). Il concetto di Intelligent Field Device e di automazione distribuita.

  • Obiettivi e contenuti
    • OBIETTIVI FORMATIVI

      Le misure nel contesto dell'automazione industriale. Misure elettriche e di processo. Strumentazione e attuatori. Architettura dei sistemi di acquisizione dati e di automazione. Programmazione di PLC. Comunicazione industriale: fieldbus. Norme di riferimento. Sicurezza funzionale. Aree con pericolo di esplosione.

      PROGRAMMA/CONTENUTO

      Instrumentation for the Industrial Automation

               1        Conceptual model of the Industrial Automation

                         .a) measurement and control -> accuracy and repetibility

                         .b) process – instrumentation – control – actuators

                              .c) the role of Computer Engineer

               2        Goal of the automation in different areas

                         .a) Continuous Process -> regolation -> DCS

                              .b) Factory Automation -> sequences -> PLC

                              .c) Service Networks -> supervision -> SCADA

                              .d) Building Automation -> supervision -> SCADA

               4        Conceptual model of a Transmitter

                         .a) sensor -> processing -> signal 

                              .b) microprocessor-based instruments

                              .c) axiliary power supply (summary)

                  5        Actuators

                         .a) on-off electric: relays and motor starters

                              .b) on-off pneumatic: electro-valve

                              .c) continuous electric: drives

                              .d) continuous pneumatic: actuators and positioners for valves

               6        Standard signals (analog and digital)

                         .a) on/off signal (SPDT)

                         .b) current/voltage signals

                              .c) signals with live-zero

                              .d) instruments with 2/4-wires

               7        The concept of Fieldbus

                         .a) A/D conversions

                              .b) network of devices in field: the fieldbus

                              .c) reduction of cabling

                              .d) the need of a standard

       

      2      The Project of an Automation System

               1        Data-flow and People

                         .a) process expert and automation expert

                              .b) functional specifications

               2        P&ID

                         .a) ISA symbols for instrumentation

                              .b) Process & Instrumentation Diagram

               3        The I/O List

                         .a) goal of the I/O list            

                              .b) typical I/O list

       

       

      3      Electrical measures in industrial environment

               1        One-Line diagram

                         .a) which variable to measure

                              .b) measuring the Power Quality

               2        PTs and CTs

                         .a) CT for masures and protection

                              .b) the limit factor for CTs

                              .c) PTs for measures and protection

                                     .d) fiscal measuring (the MID Directive)

               3        Multi-functions transducers

                         .a) block diagram of a digital instrument

                              .b) typical accuracy

                              .c) output signals and interfaces

       

      4      Measurement of Temperature

               1        Generalità

                         .a) measuring units

                              .b) thermometers: operating principles

                              .c) thermostats: operating principles

               2        Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

                           .a) operating principles

                              .b) standards and accuracy

                              .c) problems with installation

               3        Thermocouples (TC)

                           .a) operating principles

                              .b) standards and accuracy

                              .c) problems with installation

       

               4        Other sensors

                         .a) thermistors

                              .b) pirometers

                              .c) innovative sensors (optic, acustic, ...)

               5        Installation of the Instruments

                         .a) construction shapes

                              .b) thermo-wells

       

      5      Measurement of Pressure

               1        Generalità

                              .a) measuring units

                              .b) absolute-relative-differential pressure

                              .c) manometers: operating principles

                              .d) pressure switches: operating principles

               2        Sensors for pressure

                         .a) strain gauge

                              .b) piezo-electric

                              .c) capacitive

                              .d) other sensors: resonant, optic, ...

               3        Installation of the Instruments

                         .a) root valves and piping

                              .b) manifolds

       

      6      Measurement of Flow

               1        General

                         .a) flow measurement for solids and fluids

                              .b) flowmeters: operating principles

                              .c) flow-switches: operating principles

               2        Volumetric systems

                         .a) gears

                              .b) turbines

                              .c) target type

                              .d) Rangeability and reliability

               3        Restricted area devices    

                         .a) the Law of Bernoulli

                              .b) pressure profile

                              .c) primary elements: flanges, nozzles, venturi-pipes, pitot-pipes

                              .d) installation problems

               4        Magnetic flowmeters

                         .a) the Faraday Law

                              .b) structure of a mag flowmeter

                              .c) accuracy and rangeability

                              .d) sizing and installation

                  5        Vortex transmitter

                         .a) The vortexes of Von Karman

                              .b) structure of a vortex flowmeter

                              .c) accuracy and rangeability

                              .d) sizing and installation

       

               6        Mass flowmeter

                         .a) the concept of mass-flow

                              .b) The law of Coriolis

                              .c) accuracy and rangeability

                              .d) sizing and installation

                             

               7        Other sensors for flow-metering

                         .a) ultrasonic

                              .b) thermal mass

       

      7      Measurement of Level

               1        General

                         .a) levels of bulk material and liquids

                              .b) gauge and switch

               2        Electro-mechanical systems

                         .a) glass indicators

                              .b) measuring rods and ropes

                              .c) flow sensors

                              .d) rotating blades

                              .e) vibration sensors

                              .f) jo-jo sensors

                              .g) torque bar

                              .h) conductive sensors

               3        Hydrostatic pressure transmitters

                         .a) physical priciple

                              .b) pressurized and atmospheric tanks

                              .c) installation criteria

                              .d) submerged probe

               4        Capacitive transmitters

                         .a) physical priciple

                              .b) shapes and materials

                              .c) installation criteria

               5        Fly-time measuring systems

                         .a) ultrasonic transmitters

                              .b) micro-waves transmitters

                              .c) areas of application

                              .d) installation criteria

               6        Radioactive transmitters (summary)

                         .a) physical principle

                              .b) typical applications

       

      8      Fieldbus for Process Control

               1        Intelligent Field Device

                         .a) the concept of IFD

                              .b) advanced functions of IFD

                              .c) Smart instruments (Hart protocol)

               2        The concept of Communication Protocol

                         .a) the ISO/OSI model

                              .b) physical layer

                              .c) data link: data structure

                              .d) data link: Media Access Control

                              .e) transportation and networking (TCP/IP)

                              .f) application layer

                              .g) the companion standards (profiles)

               3        Internation standards for fieldbus

                         .a) from the beginnings to the IEC 61158

                              .b) standards for fieldbus todays

                              .c) Ethernet-based protocols

               4        Basic priciples of Profibus

                         .a) Profibus DP: principles and applications

                              .b) Profibus PA: principles and applications

                              .c) Specific profiles: ProfiSafe, ProfiDrive, ProfiEnergy

                              .d) Profinet

               5        Basic principles of Foundation Fieldbus

                         .a) level H1 and HSE

                              .b) Link Active Scheduler

                              .c) FF and distributed programming

               7        Wireless Sensor Networks

                         .a) industrial applications for wireless

                              .b) IEEE 802.11: WiFi

                              .c) IEEE 802.15: Bluetooth

                              .d) IEEE 802.15.4: ZigBee

                              .e) hybrid architectures (gateway)

       

       

      9      Automation Systems and Architectures

               1        The levels of automation

                         .a) multi-levels architectures: from the field to the control room

                              .b) distributed vs. concentrated architettures

                              .c) ERP and MES (summary)

                              .d) Internet: problems of security

               2        Operating principles of PLC/DCS/SCADA

                         .a) HW components: CPU, I/O cards, Power Supply, ...

                              .b) functional cyucles

               3        IEC 61131-3 programming languages   

                         .a) origin and use of the IEC 61131-3

                         .b) ladder diagram

                              .c) instruction list

                              .d) structured text

                              .e) function block language

                              .f) Sequencial Function Chart

                              .g) PC-based architectures

               4        OLE for Process Control

                         .a) interface between applications and controllers

                              .b) the benefits of OPC

                              .c) future deveolpment (OPC-UA)

       

               5        Hazardous Areas classification (ATEX)

                         .a) flammable materials and explosions

                              .b) The ATEX Directive

                              .c) classification for gas and dust

                              .d) safety electrical plants

               6        Functional Safety (SIL)

                         .a) The concept of functional safety

                              .b) The IEC 60508

                              .c) SIL and automation architectures

       

      10     Automation of electrical systems

               1        Automation functions for distribution systems HV/MV/LV

                         .a) supervision and remote control

                              .b) switch-over and emergency logics

                              .c) conventional architectures

               2        Intelligent Electrical Device

                         .a) digital protective relays

                              .b) advanced functions of digital relays

               3        A primer about IEC 61850

                         .a) origins of the IEC 61850

                              .b) the concept of logical node

                              .c) GOMSFE and GSE

                              .d) distributed automation with IEC 61850

      TESTI/BIBLIOGRAFIA

      Riferimenti bibliografici:

      [1]     A. Brunelli : “Strumentazione di misura e controllo nelle applicazioni industriali” Ed. GISI, 2002, ISBN 88-903-7314-8

      [2]     L.A. Bryan, E.A. Bryan: “Programmable Controllers – Theory and Implementation”, ISBN 0-944107-32-X

      [3]     N.P.Mahalik (a cura di), “Fieldbus Technology – Industrial Network Standards for Real-Time Distributed Control”, ISBN 3-540-40183-0

      [4]     F.Cascetta (a cura di), “Strumentazione di misura per sistemi di telecontrollo di reti idriche di pubblica utilità”, ISBN 88-464-1565-5

      [5]     P.Pinceti, “SCADA per sistemi elettrici”, ISBN 88-464-4991-6

      [6]     P.Pinceti, “L’impianto di distribuzione in Media Tensione”, ISBN 978-88-904026-0-9

      [7]     ASEM, “Personal Automation – L’automazione industriale basata su PC”, ISBN 88-481-1475-X

      [8]     J.Berge, “Fieldbuses for Process Control”, ISBN 1556177607

       

       

      Siti Web utili:

      [1]     www.isa.org

      [2]     www.iec.ch

      [3]     www.ieee.org

      [4]     www.gisi.it

      [5]     www.anie.it

      [6]     www.assoautomazione.it

      [7]     www.control.com

      [8]     www.opcfoundation.org

      [9]     www.profibus.com

      [10]    www.fieldbus.org

       

      Riviste del settore:

      [1]     Automazione e Strumentazione

      [2]      Fieldbus e Network

      [3]      InTech

      [4]      Control Engineering

      [5]      IEEE Instrumentation & Measurements

      [6]      Eidos

      [7]      Automazione Oggi    

      [8]      Tutto Misure

       

       

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    • Paolo Pinceti
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      Paolo.Pinceti@unige.it
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