The teaching will provide knowledge on the interactions between animals and the abiotic components of marine ad transition environments that can represent a source of environmental stress. The mechanisms involved in the biological response to environmental stressors at different levels of organization (form molecular to individual) and the parameters that can measure the stress response (biomarkers) will be defined. The main standard methods to quantify changes in different biomarkers in different sentinel organisms will be illustrated.
LAURA CANESI (President)
TERESA BALBI (President Substitute)