LAB OF ANDVANCED THERMODYNAMICS

iten
Code
62424
ACADEMIC YEAR
2021/2022
CREDITS
6 credits during the 1st year of 9012 PHYSICS (LM-17) GENOVA

6 credits during the 3nd year of 8758 PHYSICS (L-30) GENOVA

SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
FIS/01
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (PHYSICS)
semester
2° Semester
Prerequisites
Prerequisites
You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
  • PHYSICS 9012 (coorte 2019/2020)
  • THEORETICAL PHYSICS 61842
  • MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN PHYSICS 61843
  • MATTER PHYSICS 2 61844
  • NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS 2 61847
  • PHYSICS 9012 (coorte 2020/2021)
  • THEORETICAL PHYSICS 61842
  • MATTER PHYSICS 2 61844
  • NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS 2 61847
  • PHYSICS 9012 (coorte 2021/2022)
  • THEORETICAL PHYSICS 61842
  • MATTER PHYSICS 2 61844
  • NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS 2 61847
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course presents some advanced topics of thermodynamics through the observation of a number of phenomena in laboratory experiments and their discussion in the classroom with the aid of simple thermodynamic models, staistical mechanics and quantum physics. The topics covered belong to the physics of vacuum, systems at the tempeartures of liquid helium, superfluidity and superconductivity.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Acquisition of advanced experimental knowledges and methodologies of thermodynamics applied to low temperatures and to the detection of radiation, thermal sensors and associated electronics.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The objective of the course is the acquisition of knowledge and experimental methodologies of vacuum and low temperatures for the experimental study of complex thermodynamic systems such as superfluid and superconducting ones. The course concludes with the experimental study of one or two of the following low temperature devices that are of interest for technological scientific applications: superconducting junctions (SIS), quantum interference devices (SQUID), quantum dots (QDot) and single electron transistors (SET), bolometers and superconducting calorimeters (TES). The technologies of vacuum and low temperature production and, even if still sporadically, those of low temperature devices, are now used by many industries (Thales Alenia Space (Mi), Kaiser Italia (Li), Simic (Cn) , Rial Vacuum (Pr), Pasquali MicrowaveSystem (Fi), ASG (Ge), Columbus (Ge), Agilent Technologies (To), ...), therefore these topics have professionalizing value. Recently, the skills in these fields are appreciated in the developments for quantum computation that are underway in several universities and public and private research centers.

PREREQUISITES

 

TEACHING METHODS

Lectures in the classroom and 6 afternoon experiences of about 4 hours in the didactic laboratory of low temperatures. The texts indicated and the lecture notes, which will be published on the Aulaweb website, represent the main teaching aids. The laboratory work are introduced in class while the details of the excursion are discussed before the experience begins.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Vacuum:  fluid sealed and dry primary pumps, turbomolecular, fluid, getter and ionic pumps, vacuum measurement with mechanical, thermal, ionic hot and cold cathode transducers. Cryogenics: Stirling and Gifford Mac Mahon cycles, pulsed tubes, gas liquefaction and Joule-Thomson expansion, nitrogen and helium liquefactors, magnetic refrigeration, dilution coolers. Temperature measurements: absolute and standard temperature scale up to mK, primary and secondary thermometers. Physics of some low temperature systems: electrical and thermal conduction, superfluidity and lambda transition, He-I and He-II and London model, thermomechanical effects, superconductivity and its experimental evidence, classification in type I and II superconductors, elements of microscopic BCS theory and forbidden gap, superconductor thermodynamics and elements of Ginzburg Landau theory. Physics of some low-temperature devices, one or two selected from: superconducting junctions (SIS), quantum interference device (SQUID), quantum dots (QDot) and single electron transistor (SET), bolometers and superconducting calorimeters (TES). Laboartory works: 1- cooling with LHe and measurement of the thermal input of a cryostat; 2- absolute Kelvin thermometry with calibration of a secondary thermometer; 3 - HeI-He-II lambda phase transition and superfluidity; 4-transition from normal conduction to superconducting state; 5- IV characteristic of a Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor tunnel junction and prohibited gap; 6. quantum interference in the SQUID.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Zemansky: “Calore e Termodinamica” ; G.K.White: “Experimental Techniques in low temperature physics”; R. Richardson, E. Smith: “Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics and Low temperature”; O.V. Lounasma: “Experimental Principles and Methods Below 1K”.

 

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Office hours: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday from 2 pm to 3 pm compatibly with other teaching commitments. It is required to arrange an appointment by e-mail: flavio.gatti@unige.it.

Exam Board

FLAVIO GATTI (President)

DANIELE MARRE'

MARIO AGOSTINO ROCCA

LESSONS

TEACHING METHODS

Lectures in the classroom and 6 afternoon experiences of about 4 hours in the didactic laboratory of low temperatures. The texts indicated and the lecture notes, which will be published on the Aulaweb website, represent the main teaching aids. The laboratory work are introduced in class while the details of the excursion are discussed before the experience begins.

LESSONS START

From 21 February 2022 according to the timetable that will be available on the website of the degree course in physics.

Class schedule

All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

Oral examination on the arguments of the course, or, execution of a laboratory work with presentation of the results.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Verification of the knowledge acquired in the interview or, in the presentation of the results of the laboratory experience.It is based on a fixed number of questions concerning the examination program and allows the commission to judge, as well as preparation, the skills of synthesis and communication.

FURTHER INFORMATION