CELL BIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT

CELL BIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT

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iten
Code
104184
ACADEMIC YEAR
2020/2021
CREDITS
6 credits during the 1st year of 11158 APPLIED AND EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY (LM-6) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/06
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (APPLIED AND EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY)
semester
2° Semester
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The teaching of Cellular and Developmental Biology is a unique module lasting 6 credits. The aim of the course is to provide students with knowledge of novel cellular mechanisms, illustrating new pathways that increase the complexity of cell biology mainly focusing on development processes.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course of Cellular and Developmental Biology aims to deepen the knowledge of the cell by describing in detail the biological processes that regulate both intercellular and intracellular communication between the different compartments with particular attention in every process to the regulation of gene expression both in conditions physiological and pathological and during development.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Cellular and Developmental Biology aims at investigating the interactions between the different cellular components, in particular those that play a role in regulating gene expression, both in terms of production and elimination of proteins. Starting from the mechanisms that regulate the interaction between the extracellular environment and the nucleus with the ultimate aim of regulating gene expression, we will move on to analyzing other pathways assigned to regulate gene expression by means of non-coding RNAs and quality control mechanisms of proteins. This will therefore lead to address the topic of cellular response to the formation of protein aggregates and the methods that can be used to study these processes starting from cell cultures up to stem cells and organoids. The mechanisms of epithelium-mesenchyme and mesenchyme-epithelium transitions and the mechanisms of intercellular communication and migration will be studied in depth. Particular attention will be given to the role of the cytoskeleton in all the processes analyzed.
Each topic will be joined to the previous ones and at the end of the course the student will be able to connect all the acquired notions, to understand how the cellular signal networks are tightly integrated and how the cytoskeleton fits in the regulation of intra and extra-cellular signals.
The study of cellular processes will be addressed both from a theoretical point of view, outlining the role of different mechanisms both in physiological conditions, in pathology and during development, and from a practical point of view, guiding the student with examples to study the mechanisms.

PREREQUISITES

To achieve a good comprehension, it is required that the student has acquired the basic knowledge of Cytology, Developmental Biology, Genetics and Molecular Biology

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons through the use of multimedia presentations.

Please refer to the specific AulaWeb application for teaching for any updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

1. Interactions between nucleus and cytoskeleton in the regulation of gene expression in response to external stimuli (mechanosensing-mechanotransduction)

2. Classification and functioning of the types of non-coding RNA in gene expression (microRNA, long ncRNA, circ-RNA) and role in development (i.e. inactivation of the X chromosome)

3. Ubiquitin-proteasome system: operation, regulation, assembly

4. Cell quality control systems (UPR, ERAD, RQC)

5. Types of autophagy (microautophagy, mediated by chaperone, macroautophagy, independent and dependent ubiquitin organellophagy); role of autophagy in reproduction.

6. Role of the cytoskeleton in macroautophagy: microfilaments and microtubules in the formation of autophagosomes and in the transport of vesicles.

7. Mutual regulation between autophagy and apoptosis: role of autophagic proteins, cytoskeleton and autophagosomes

8. Proteins aggregation and cellular response

9. Description of cellular and molecular tools for the study of the analysed mechanisms (sensor plasmids to evaluate the functioning of the UPS system, autophagy, reporter plasmids to study the effect of microRNA, planning of experimental approaches and examples)

10. Cell migration: differential gene expression, cytoskeleton and regulation of focal adhesion formation, migration in 2D and 3D, single and collective migration. Post-translational modifications of the cytoskeleton. Cell migration during embryogenesis, consequences of cell migration defects.

11. Increasingly complex systems for the study of cell biology processes (single-layer, 2D, 3D, organoid, 4D systems).

12. Stem cells: classification, characteristics; production and use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCc) and MSCs with main attention to their secretome

13. Epithelium-mesenchyme transition and mesenchyme-epithelium transition: events that characterize the two processes and mechanisms of mutual regulation and their role in the generation of iPSCs

14. Intercellular communication through cellular processes cytonema and "tunneling nanotubes": role of the cytoskeleton in their formation; use of these mechanisms in signaling between stem cells and in the propagation of protein aggregates or organelles between neurons and astrocytes. Role in electrical signalling during embryogenesis

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

For each lesson, articles on the topic will be provided on AulaWeb, in addition to slides used during frontal lessons

For some topics the book Bruce Alberts Alexander Johnson Julian Lewis David Morgan Martin Raff Keith Roberts Peter Walter "Molecular biology of the cell", ed. Zanichelli can be used

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: The reception of the students will be agreed by e-mail : tiziana.bachetti@unige.it

Exam Board

TIZIANA BACHETTI (President)

SIMONA CANDIANI

SARA FERRANDO (President Substitute)

MATTEO BOZZO (Substitute)

CRISTIANO ANGELINI (Substitute)

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons through the use of multimedia presentations.

Please refer to the specific AulaWeb application for teaching for any updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

LESSONS START

The lessons will take place during the second semester. To know start lessons and timetable, please consult the link: http://www.distav.unige.it/ccsbio/orario-lezioni.

ORARI

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile su EasyAcademy.

Vedi anche:

CELL BIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam will be performed orally.

Assessment methods

During the exam, the level of acquisition of the notions given during the course and the student's ability to process them critically will be assessed.

Please refer to the specific AulaWeb application for teaching for any updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
15/06/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame inizierà alle ore 11
30/06/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame inizierà alle ore 11
15/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame inizierà alle ore 11
29/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame inizierà alle ore 11
15/09/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame inizierà alle ore 11

FURTHER INFORMATION

Attendance is recommended.