MEDICAL SCIENCE I

MEDICAL SCIENCE I

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iten
Code
67345
ACADEMIC YEAR
2020/2021
CREDITS
8 credits during the 2nd year of 9284 PODOLOGY (L/SNT2) GENOVA
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (PODOLOGY)
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course is based on 8 teaching modules related to endocrinology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, geriatrics, dermatology and venereal diseases, dermatology in podology and clinical pathology. The aim of the course is to provide a general view of the main clinical-diagnostic aspects and pathological entities of podological interest.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Knowing the main endocrinological and metabolic pathologies (thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas). Knowing the main rheumatic diseases with connective, joint and bone involvement. Knowing the infections, bacterial and viral, transmission possibilities and their treatment. To deepen the knowledge of cardiovascular disease and to learn instrumental techniques for peripheral vasculopathies. Understand the demographic and epidemiological aspects of geriatrics, physiological aging and major geriatric syndromes. Learn the basics of skin foot problems with particular attention to onycopathy and onychomycosis. To explore the fields of investigation of clinical pathology

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Endocrinology - Deepen the fundamental knowledge of anatomy and physiology, embryology of the endocrine and metabolic system, biochemistry of hormones and intermediary metabolism, genetics, the mechanisms underlying the development of endocrine diseases, metabolic and andrological and pathogenesis of complications.

Reumatology - Appreciate the differences between inflammatory and degenerative joint disease, to recognize the main rheumatic diseases.
Understanding the role of physical and motor activity in the prevention and treatment of various rheumatic diseases. Know the main rheumatic diseases with connective involvement, joint and bone to foot involvement.

Infectious diseases - Systematic knowledge of the most important Infectious Diseases and Tropical bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal under the etiological aspect. Ability to integrate medical history, symptoms, physical signs and functional alterations of each infectious disease with the clinical diagnostic process, instrumental and laboratory. Knowing infections, bacterial and viral, the possibility of transmission and treatment. The clinical conditions of the infected foot: acquire the clinical knowledge and in particular the approach to patients with infected foot problems.

Cardiology - Theoretical knowledge, scientific and professional in the field of pathophysiology, clinical and treatment of cardiovascular diseases including congenital heart disease. Are specific areas of jurisdiction, the pathophysiology and clinical cardiovascular, functional and instrumental semiotics, clinical methodology, including behavioral methods in acute syndromes and in emergency-urgent situations, the instrumental diagnostic invasive and non-invasive, drug therapy and interventionist, as well as primary prevention interventions and programs riabilitativooccupazionali. To increase the knowledge of the cardio-vascular pathology and learn the techniques of instrumental investigation of peripheral vascular disease.

Geriatrics - To acquire the basic knowledge of human physiology and major modifications of organs and systems that develop with increasing age; It is able to recognize these alterations in clinical practice, to set, when necessary, an adequate therapeutic treatment; knowing how to properly interpret the investigations necessary to put a correct diagnosis; knowing how to direct the patient to the specialist reference. Know the main organs and systems. Knowing the demographic and epidemiological aspects of geriatrics, physiological aging and the great geriatric syndromes.

Dermatology and Venereology - Become familiar with common diagnostic techniques outpatient with ability to decide the laboratory / instrumental approach most suitable for the individual paziente.Conoscere: 1) the basic concepts related to histology of the skin and skin appendages; 2) the physiological and pathophysiological bases of the skin and skin appendages, with particular reference to the skin understood as organ and complex structure; 3) the general pathophysiological mechanisms involving changes in skin manifestations; 4) the main multidisciplinary internal pathologies where the Podiatrist may play a key role in the diagnosis or in the common management of the patient; 5) the basic radiological concepts and, in depth, the instrumental staging of cutaneous neoplasms and radiological aspects associated with inflammatory or degenerative skin diseases; 6) the basic concepts relating to aspects of systemic diseases with dermatologic involvement (SLE, scleroderma).

Dermatology in Podologic Science - Learn the fundamentals of skin diseases of the foot with particular regard to onicopatie and onico.micosi. Learn the fundamentals of skin conditions of the foot and the annexes, especially with regard to diseases of podiatric interest. know the skin reconstruction techniques (free grafts and pedicle, Reverdin, transplants and in laboratory cultures of skin), and deepen those minor surgery (ingrown toenails,wart, etc.).

Clinical pathology module: Know the concepts of general clinical pathology (accuracy and precision, sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, sensitivity and methodological specificity, positive and negative predictive value, range of normality, decision levels). Know the main analysis tests concerning inflammatory pathologies, cell damage and neoplasms, with their main uses and meanings

PREREQUISITES

Basic knowledge in biology, histoogy, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and general pathology

Teaching methods

The lessons are performed in frontal way with the help of sets of explanatory slides. The discussion and the active participation of students during lessons are favored with examples from clinical practice that they may have faced during internship activities. The teaching material used during lessons is provided to the students in addition to the suggested texts

Depending on the health conditions in our country, the lessons can be delivered online, preferably in live streaming

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Endocrinology Program - 1) Introduction to Endocrinology; 2) hypophisis and hypothalamus diseases; 3) Hypo and hyperthyroidism; 4) Type 1 diabetes and complications; 5) Type 2 diabetes and complications.
Rheumatology Program - 1) Primary and Secondary Osteoarthritis. 2) Osteoporosis. 3) Rheumatoid Arthritis. 4) Psoriatic arthritis. 5) Septic arthritis. 6) Microcrystalline arthritis. 7) introductory notes to connective tissue and diseases. 8) Raynaud's Phenomenon. 9) Scleroderma. 10) Rheumatic Polymyalgia. 11) Acute rheumatism. 12) Articolar rheumatism. 13) Paget Disease. 14) Fibromyalgia.

Infectious Disease Program - 1) Main gastrointestinal infections. 2) Major respiratory infections. 3) Urinary infections. 4) Liver parenteral infectious disease. 5) Liver oro-fecal infectious disease. 6) Nosocomial infections. 7) HIV infections. 8) Common infections in the orthopedic field. 9) Diabetic foot infections. 10) Encephalitis and meningitis. 11) Soft tissue infections. 12) Prosthodontitis Infections. 13) Osteomyelitis.
Cardiovascular System Disease Program - 1) Acute Ischemic Cardiopathy (Myocardial Infarction and unstable angina): Physiopathology; Clinic; Diagnosis and Therapy. 2) Chronic Ischemic Cardiopathy: Physiopathology; Clinic; Diagnosis and Therapy. 3) Acute Heart Failure: Pathophysiology; Clinic; Diagnosis and Therapy. 4) Chronic heart failure: Pathophysiology; Clinic; Diagnosis and Therapy. 5) Major valvulopathies and cardiovascular risk factors: Introduction to etiopathology and clinical frameworks of the main valvulopathies; Generalities about cardiovascular risk factors.

Geriatrics Program - 1) Demographic and Epidemiological Aspects. 2) Role of geriatrics in healthcare organization. 3) Physiological aging: age-dependent changes in various organs and apparatus. 4) Age-dependent changes in homeostatic control. 5) The conditions of fragility. 6) Characteristics of the geriatric patient: pathology, iatrogenic risk, risk of non-self-sufficiency. 6) Geriatrics multidimensional evaluation. 7) Management of chronicity. 8) Evaluation tools for ADI and RSA. 9) Major Geriatric Diseases and Urgencies: Acute Diseases, Arterial Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular Accident, Respiratory Failure, Renal Impairment, Thromboembolic Processes, Acute Cerebrovascular Accident, Delirium. 10) Major geriatric syndromes: osteoporosis, falls and fractures, disturbances of hydro-electrolysis equilibrium and thermoregulation, malnutrition, dizziness and syncope, immobilization syndrome, decubitus wounds. 11) Rehabilitative medicine: functional evaluation, rehabilitation in geriatric diseases, occupational therapy.

Dermatology Program - 1) Anatomy of the skin: macroscopic and microscopic features of the skin. Pilosebaceous unit: hair; The sebaceous gland; The apocrine sudoripara gland. Sweat glands. The nail apparatus. Vascularization of the skin. Skin innervation. 2) Elementary lesions: Primary basic Injury. Secondary basic Injuries. Pathognomonic lesions. 3) Eczema Dermatitis: Atopic Dermatitis. Irritable Contact Dermatitis (ICD). Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD). 4) Viral Dermatoses: Herpes simplex. Shingles. Vulgar warts. Contagious molluscus. 5) Parasitic: Scabies. Pediculosis. Phthiriasis. Aquatic skin pathology by biotic agents. 6) Bacterial Dermatosis:  Impetigens. Surface and deep pierced. 7) Superficial skin mycosis: Dermatophytic and candida skin mycosis. 8) Acquired and congenital Hyperkeratosis of the foot. 9) Immunomediate Diseases: Psoriasis. Lichen ruber planus. 10) Skin Tumors: Bowen Disease. Basal cell epithelioma. Spinocellular Epithelioma. Melanoma.

Clinical pathology. General clinical pathology: concepts of accuracy and precision, sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, sensitivity and methodological specificity, positive and negative predictive value, normal range, decision levels. Special clinical pathology: markers of inflammation (acute phase proteins and leukocytosis); tissue damage markers; tumor markers.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

STUDENTS MUST REFER TO THE INDICATIONS GIVEN IN THE TEACHING SHEETS OF THE SINGLE DISCIPLINES

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: For appointments, contact the Professor via email at: Nicola.Traverso@unige.it. The teacher's office is located in the General Pathology Section of DIMES, Via Leon Battista Alberti 2, 1st floor, 16132 Genoa  

Exam Board

CARMEN PIZZORNI

GIAN MARCO ROSA

RENZO CORDERA

MONICA PIZZONIA

ANDREA DE MARIA

EMANUELE CLAUDIO COZZANI

NICOLA TRAVERSO

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The lessons are performed in frontal way with the help of sets of explanatory slides. The discussion and the active participation of students during lessons are favored with examples from clinical practice that they may have faced during internship activities. The teaching material used during lessons is provided to the students in addition to the suggested texts

Depending on the health conditions in our country, the lessons can be delivered online, preferably in live streaming

LESSONS START

Lessons start in October (in general second half of the month).

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam takes place in a test mode with multiple choice questions. An average of 64 questions (8 for each module) are administered, each of which with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 5 answers, of which students must choose the best (most accurate, most complete, without imperfections). The overall mark is given by the sum of the correct answers, adjusted in thirtieths. Penalties do not apply for wrong answers or for fields not filled in. The exam is passed only if the result mark is equal to or greater than 18 AND if at least 3 answers are correct for each discipline. Candidates have 60 minutes to complete the paper.
Depending on the health conditions in our country, the test can be administered online live.

Assessment methods

The methods of ascertaining the candidate's preparation with tests consisting of multiple choice questions has several reasons:
- the integrated course consists of 8 different modules managed by different teachers and with different themes and only partially superimposable. The need arises to ascertain the candidate's preparation for each of the modules and on different topics covered in the module. The most effective assessment method in this sense is the test with multiple choice questions.
- the test with multiple choice questions represents an objective, equanimous evaluation tool for students and free from problems related to stress or anxiety of the candidate that can occur in the oral test.
- the numerous commitments of the teaching staff make it difficult to set up an exam commission in which everyone is constantly present. The test with multiple choice questions allows you to explore the candidate's preparation on all modules even in the absence of the reference teacher.
In order to pass the exam, the candidate must correctly answer at least 3 questions of each module and obtain a mark out of thirty out of 18.