Physiology course provides the elements to understand the physiological functioning of organs and systems. Starting from the functioning mechanisms of the neuron and the nervous system, the course provide the elements to understand the functions of the muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, endocrine, digestive systems and in particular of the stomatognathic system.
At the end of the course the student needs to know the functioning of the nervous and endocrine systems and the control exercised in the vegetative and relationship life and, the functioning of the systems which supervise the vegetative life and their integration in the maintenance of homeostasis. In particular, the physiology of the stomatognathic system will be treated, with attention to the functional aspects of the oral cavity, sensitivity and oral motility.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
The aim of the teaching is to provide students of the degree course with the basic notions of physiology of the nervous and endocrine systems and the control exercised in vegetative and relationship life and the functioning of the systems (cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and digestive) which supervise the vegetative life and their dynamic integration in the maintenance of homeostasis. The physiology of the stomatognathic system will be studied in depth, with attention to the functional aspects of the oral cavity, sensitivity and oral motility.
At the end of the course, the student must know and be able to analytically describe the basic notions of Physiology of the cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, nervous, endocrine, muscular, digestive, general physiology and stomatognathic sistems. Must be able to explain, critically evaluate and distinguish the functions of the apparatuses in maintaining the homeostasis of the individual.
Solid bases of chemistry, physics and biology will help student to achieve better results in understanding of human physiology.
Frontal lessons with the use of slides
General physiology: cell membrane and transport, pumps and ion channels; the ionic bases of the membrane potential. Cellular excitability: genesis and propagation of action potential.
Synapses and synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters, receptors and post-receptor transduction. Physiology of muscle contraction. Motor units. Nervous control of muscle contraction. Physiology and contraction of the smooth muscle
Morpho-functional organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Role of association cortex.
Spinal mechanisms of motor coordination: proprioceptive and exteroceptive reflexes. the motor activity control by the brain stem: posture and locomotion. Control of voluntary movement: cortical areas and cortico-spinal. Movement control and planning systems: cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Receptors and sensory transduction. The somatic sensitivity: tactile, painful, thermal, proprioceptive. Pain and analgesia. Physiology of taste and smell.
The trigeminal nerve: area of innervation; sensory and motor function.
The autonomic nervous system and the homeostatic functions of the hypothalamus.
General concepts of endocrine control. The hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal axis. The hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. Integrated controls of: growth; of the calcium and phosphorus metabolism; of energy metabolism; of the hydro-saline balance.
Blood, hemostasis and hemodynamics.
The electrical activity of the heart: excitability and automatism. Genesis and conduction of action potential in the heart. Electrocardiogram. The cardiac cycle: cardiac mechanics, regulation of cardiac contractility. Arterial system, capillaries, venous system. Pulse wave and blood pressure. Microcirculation and capillary exchanges. Venous return and lymphatic circulation. Mechanisms of regulation of cardiac activity and blood pressure.
The body's water compartments. Renal system functions. The mechanisms of urine formation: glomerular filtration and its regulation. The mechanisms of urine formation: tubular reabsorption and secretion. Fate of the main plasma components in the passage through the kidney. Renal clearance. Concentration and dilution mechanisms of urine. Renal regulation of osmolarity and the volume of body fluids. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Integrated regulation of the acid-base balance.
Respiratory mechanics. Lung volumes and capacity. Compliance. Pulmonary surfactant. Pulmonary circulation. Ventilation / perfusion ratio. Respiratory gases and alveolus-capillary gas exchanges. Transport of respiratory gases into the blood. The nervous and chemical control of respiratory activity.
Salivary glands: formation and composition of saliva. Temporomandibular joint and jaw movements. Chewing. Chewing muscles and chewing reflexes. Chewing control. Swallowing. Language movements and jaw posture.
Structure and function of the digestive system: esophagus, stomach, intestine. Secretions and motility of the digestive system. Digestion and absorption of food principles. Function of the liver and pancreas.
Berne & Levy, FISIOLOGIA, CEA
Ferguson, BIOLOGIA DEL CAVO ORALE, CEA
Ricevimento: Upon agreement with prof. Franco Onofri e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org tel: 010/3537967
Ricevimento: By appointment upon agreement by email
Ricevimento: Upon agreement with prof. Carla Cogo e-mail: email@example.com tel: 010/3538186
FRANCO ONOFRI (President)
EMANUELA LUISA FAELLI (President)
ANNA MARGHERITA CORRADI (President)
CARLA COGO (President)
Frontal lessons with the use of slides
first semester, in October
The exam is oral and includes two questions of Physiology and one question of Physiology of the stomatognathic system by several teachers.
In the oral question, the preparation of the candidate and the achievement of the learning outcomes related to the program are assessed by the teachers of Physiology based on the verification of the student's exposure to teachers' questions. The candidate must demonstrate that he has acquired sufficient knowledge on the general physiology and specific functionality of the organs, systems and stomatognathic system present in the program.
The slides of the lessons provided by the teachers of the course are available on aulaweb