DIAGNOSIS, DESIGN AND ENERGY CERTIFICATION OF BUILDINGS
The issue of energy saving in buildings is extremely topical. In the European Union, the civil sector is responsible for around 35% of energy consumption, contributing significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.
Since 2002, EU legislation has introduced a policy attentive to the theme of energy saving in buildings which has been implemented at national level. The technical regulations have supported this need by promoting calculation procedures aimed at uniquely calculating the energy performance of buildings.
The course aims to provide students with knowledge of the energy performance of buildings with particular reference to the legislation and technical regulations in force. The aspects relating to the energy diagnosis of existing buildings, the minimum performance requirements that new buildings have to undergo and major renovations or energy requalification and energy certification of buildings will be covered. The course involves the application of content to a real case study through the use of commercial software.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
The main objectives of energy policies at Community level are:
- the energy requalification of the existing building stock,
- the construction of new buildings with NZEB (nearly zero energy building) qualification.
To this end, the main tools available are:
- energy diagnosis of existing buildings;
- design in compliance with the minimum requirements in the case of new buildings and subjected to restructuring at various levels;
- the energy certification of buildings.
The course aims to provide the knowledge and tools necessary to tackle the problem of energy efficiency in construction with reference to the three tools described above.
Starting from the knowledge of the current legislation and regulations, the student must be able to create the energy model of a building and to evaluate the main parameters that influence its energy performance. In the exercises, a real case study will be addressed, using commercial software.
Fundamentals of heat transmission: conduction, convection, radiation, transmittance.
Frontal lessons and guided exercises using commercial software.
Legislation and technical standards on the calculation of the energy performance of buildings.
• Overview of current legislation on the energy performance of buildings at European, national and regional level.
• Overall energy performance indicators of the building and for each single service: heating, cooling, domestic hot water, ventilation, lighting, transport. CO2 emissions.
• The standards of the UNI/TS 11300 series and the procedure for calculating the energy performance of buildings. Types of evaluation: on the project, standard, adapted to users.
• Renewable energy: definition, conversion factors, renewable share.
• Reference building.
• Nearly zero energy building (NZEB).
• Classification of interventions according to Ministerial Decree 26-06-2015: new construction, major renovation, energy requalification.
• Legislation and technical standards on energy certification of buildings.
• Legislation and technical standards on energy diagnosis of buildings.
• CAM, Minimum Environmental Criteria for public administration tenders.
• Tax incentives for the energy requalification of buildings: eco-bonus, thermal account.
• Heat exchange through the opaque components of the building envelope according to UNI EN ISO 6946: walls, attics, floors, stairway doors. The abacus of the wall structures UNI / TR 11552.
• Heat exchange through the transparent components of the building envelope according to UNI EN ISO 10077-1: windows, doors, shutters.
• Heat exchange through thermal bridges according to UNI EN ISO 14683.
• Ideal thermal energy requirement of the building for heating and cooling according to UNI / TS 11300-1: ventilation, transmission, internal contributions, solar contributions, utilization factor of the free contributions. Average monthly climatic data according to UNI 10349-1.
• Summer performance of the building envelope: time constant, dynamic regime according to UNI EN ISO 13786, periodic transmittance, admittance, internal air capacity, attenuation and phase shift of the thermal wave, cold roofs, SRI solar reflection index.
Heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems
• Emission subsystem: thermal emission and thermal inertia, radiators, fan coils, convectors, radiant panels, radiant plates, air heaters, vents in hot air systems.
• Regulation subsystem: manual with boiler thermostat, centralized climatic, for single zone, for single environment, zone + climate, environment + climate.
• Distribution subsystem: autonomous and centralized systems, horizontal and vertical distribution.
• Storage subsystem.
• Generation subsystem: combined and separate production, traditional boilers with constant and sliding temperature, condensing boilers.
• Domestic hot water systems: storage, instantaneous, mixed production.
Energy from renewable sources
• Electric heat pumps: reverse cycle with steam compression, components, reversibility of the cycle, refrigerant fluids, classification by energy source for hot and cold wells, types of systems associated with heat pumps, maximum temperatures obtainable, production of domestic hot water, heat pumps with cold air source, water, soil. Determination of heat pump performance according to UNI / TS 11300-4.
• Biomass: classification of biomass: solid, liquid, gaseous, wood biomass: water content, calorific value, firewood, briquettes, wood chips, pellets. Solid biomass generators: fireplaces, thermo-fireplaces, stoves, thermo-stoves, boilers. Determination of the performance of biomass generators according to UNI / TS 11300-4.
• Solar thermal: typologies, efficiency curve. Storage tanks: DHW storage tanks, heating tanks, combined tanks. Solar thermal systems: forced and natural circulation, regulation systems, plant configurations. Determination of the performance of solar thermal systems according to UNI / TS 11300-4.
• Photovoltaic solar: photovoltaic effect, photovoltaic cell, photovoltaic module. Characteristic parameters: peak power, rated voltage, rated current, efficiency. Factors that influence performance: irradiation, shading, temperature. Materials: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, thin film modules. Photovoltaic systems: stand alone and grid connected systems, storage tanks, inverters. Rough sizing of a photovoltaic system and architectural integration. Determination of the performance of photovoltaic solar systems according to UNI / TS 11300-4.
Lecture notes will be provided.
Ricevimento: The dates of the revisions with students are available on AULAWEB.
STEFANO BERGERO (President)
Frontal lessons and guided exercises using commercial software.
The exam consists of an oral interview where the discussion will focus on the case study addressed during the exercises. The student must be able to justify the choices made and to discuss the results using the contents learned during the lectures.
The exam consists of an oral interview