The course deals with both the theoretical and technological aspects of energy systems and their main components. The focus is mainly on thermo-electric energy conversion plants from fuels or alternative thermal sources. The course explores, also from a technological point of view, the need to provide a national electricity grid with programmable energy sources, which can therefore compensate for the stochastic fluctuations of loads and production from renewable sources.
Basics of the design and / or construction and / or operation of energy plants are discussed. Starting from the thermodynamics and fluid dynamics applied to energy systems, the following topics are covered: internal combustion engines, steam turbine systems, turbine and gas plants, combined heat and power plants, renewable energy plants.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
- understand plant layouts of energy systems
- analyze the performance of energy systems and related turbomachinery
- critically interpret the measurements coming from energy plants
- research the main features of technologies for electricity production
- simulate the performance of a simple internal combustion engine
Class lectures and laboratory exercises.
The course is divided into five modules, which are summarized below.
A) ELEMENTS OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID DYNAMICS
Energy requirements, energy sources. Types of machines. Units of measurement. Main thermodynamic diagrams. Open and closed systems; technical meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Ideal transformations and efficiencies. Thermodynamic cycles. Energy equation in thermodynamic and mechanical forms.
B) RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Mechanical scheme and reference thermodynamic cycles. Four stroke and two stroke engines. Internal combustion engines with compression ignition and spark ignition. Ideal cycle and quasi-ideal cycle. Real cycle. Combustion reaction and dissociation. Carburation and fuel injection. Ideal and real distribution. Elements of supercharging systems.
C) STEAM PLANT
Steam cycles and related plants: expression of efficiency; methods to improve the efficiency of the steam cycle; regeneration; the heat balance; general aspects of the circuit; circuits backpressure and cogeneration. How to regulate the power output of steam plants. Components of steam cycles: turbine and channel expansion; the condenser; the degasser; the regenerative heat exchangers; construction types.
D) PLANTS AND GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLES
Gas turbine cycles: simple cycle ideal, quasi-ideal and real; performance of the ideal cycle; conditions of maximum useful work; performance of the quai-ideal cycle and the real cycle. The diagram and efficiency and specific work; Main components of the gas turbine; the recuperated cycle; the intercooled cycle; the re-heated cycle. Combined cycles and plant schemes.
E) A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
Hydroelectric plants and pumping systems. Geothermal systems. Solar energy plants. Wind energy plants. Biogas plants, biomass plants, district heating and high efficiency cogeneration.
ACTON O., CAPUTO C. - (1) Introduzione allo studio delle macchine; (2) Impianti motori; (4) Turbomacchine - UTET
BENSON S. - The Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of ICE - Clarendon Pres
CLUP A. - Principles of energy conversion - McGraw-Hill
DIXON S.L. - Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery - Pergamon
LOZZA G. - Turbine a gas e cicli combinati - Progetto Leonardo
MORAN, SHAPIRO - Fundamentals of Thermodynamics - J.Wiley
SANDROLINI S, NALDI G. - Macchine - Pitagora
STECCO S. - Impianti di conversione energetica - Ed. Pitagora
TAYLOR C. - The Internal Combustion Engine - MIT
VAN WYLEN, SONNTAG - Fundamentals of Thermodynamics - Wiley
VARDY A. - Fluid Principles - McGraw-Hill
ALBERTO TRAVERSO (President)
MARIO LUIGI FERRARI
Class lectures and laboratory exercises.
Oral questions, where all the excercises done in the class should be shown.
Project, performed at the laboratory computer.
Written exercises and final project
In the laboratory excercises will be carried out using the software Matlab.