DRUGS ANALYSIS II

DRUGS ANALYSIS II

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iten
Code
80445
ACADEMIC YEAR
2020/2021
CREDITS
8 credits during the 3nd year of 8451 Pharmaceutical chemistry and technology (LM-13) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
CHIM/08
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Pharmaceutical chemistry and technology)
semester
2° Semester
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course focuses mainly on the analysis of organic and inorganic drugs.

Theoric and individual exercises  will be evaluated.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

In this course, mixture separation and purification of organic pharmaceutical substances were treated, using different methods including chromatography, distillation or crystallization. The isolated substances are subsequently identified with the classical qualitative analysis, based on the research and the identification of the elements,  of the functional groups present in the molecule, followed by the determination of some physical constants such as melting or boiling point, density, optical rotation. Also individual practical exercises are provided.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The main goal of this course is to prepare the student to the recognition of an inorganic and organic substances  through individual laboratory exercises.

In the inorganic analysis we analyzed the salts present in FU by systematic analysis of anions and cations.

As concerns analysis of organic drugs,  all chemical classes (acids, bases, amphoteric substances and neutral) are deeply investigated.

At the end of the course the student should be able to pass the tests for the qualification to the profession of pharmacist.

Teaching methods

Theoric and practical lessons with individual evaluation.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Organoleptic characteristics of a substance. Combustion essays.

Recognition of inorganic salts: solubility and flame. Anions and cations identification.

Recognition of organic substances. Flame tests and solubility. Preparation of Lassaigne solution. Recognition of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, halogens. Recognition of halides by solubility in different bases. Beilstein test. Combustion residue analysis. Recognition general essays.

Classification of substances according to solubility.

Melting point: definition. Apparatus for the determination of the melting point. Mixed melting point.

Carboxylic acids: general recognition essays; esterification essay.

Phenols: general characteristics; phenols mono, bi, tri valent; specific assays: aurine, ftaleine, Liebermann, copulation with diazonium salts.

Basic substances: amines and alkaloids. Amines: basicity, general characteristics; specific assays: diazo-coupling reaction, Rimini and  Simon essay; separation of a mixture of amines by the Hinsberg essay.

Alkaloids: caracteristics

Purine derivatives: general characteristics, solubility, the murexide essay.

Sulfonamides: solubility, essay with Fehling A .; a-amino acids: ninhydrin wise, aromatic amino acids.

Neutral substances: aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, sugars, esters and amides.

Mixture separations.

Crystallization: choice of solvent. Crystallization with one or  two solvents.

Relative and absolute density. Apparatus for density measurement.

Refractive index: definition, laws of refraction; Abbe refractometer.

Optical rotation: the nature of polarized light. Nicol prisms. Polarimeter. Sample preparation. Specific rotation.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Savelli-Bruno edizioni PICCIN.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Theoric and practical lessons with individual evaluation.

EXAMS

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
08/04/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
22/06/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
06/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
20/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
06/09/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
20/09/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
26/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
09/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale