EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY

EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY

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iten
Code
61197
ACADEMIC YEAR
2020/2021
CREDITS
9 credits during the 2nd year of 8745 MEDICINE AND SURGERY (LM-41) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
MED/04
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (MEDICINE AND SURGERY)
semester
2° Semester
modules
This unit is a module of:
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

Experimental Pathology, is the branch of medicine treating the aetiology of  the diseases and their different processes through the microscopic or molecular examination of organs, tissues, cells, or body fluids from diseased organisms. Another  important aspect involved in this field concerns the analysis of the mechanisms by which the body defends itself against infections and, in particular, what happens when the Immunological System  doesn’t work properly.

 

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course of  Experimental Pathology  aims to transmit to the student a deep knowledge about  aetiology and  phathogenesis of the diseases.

Students will also study all the different immunological mechanisms involved in the immune responses both in normal and pathological conditions.

These studies should be considered as preparatory for planned clinical subjects in subsequent years.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The General Pathology course aims:
-    to provide the knowledge about the etiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases both at the cellular and at the molecular levels;
-    to provide an overall comprehension of the mechanisms at the base of cellular pathology and of the inflammatory response; 
-    to develop an adequate knowledge about the immunological mechanisms involved in the immune response and in diseases responsible for/caused by immune system alterations.

At the end of the course the student will be able:
- to gain a deep knowledge about the etiology and the pathogenesis of the diseases in humans;
- to classify the causes of disease;
- to recognize the adaptation responses to cellular injury and the morphological and biochemical modifications associated to cell death;
- to gain a deep knowledge about inflammation and tissue repair and to describe the mechanisms involved;
- to apply the acquired knowledge on the immune response to explain defense mechanisms against infectious agents and tumors;
- to apply the acquired knowledge on the immune response to explain the mechanisms involved in immune system alterations;
- to acquire a correct terminology for the proper presentation of the pathological processes; 
- to critically deal with the clinical subjects planned in subsequent years.

Teaching methods

Teaching is divided into 90 hours of classroom lectures on all the topics of the syllabus. These topics are explained by the teachers through PowerPoint presentations and all the lessons are shared in Aulaweb. The teachers always recommend the use of a textbook to expand the overall view of the subject. Attendance in this course is mandatory.

The frontal lessons could be carried out remotely in online mode using the Teams platform.

 

 

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Concepts of health and disease, etiology, pathogenesis.

Causes of disease:
Chemical and drug injury.
Injury by physical agents (ionizing and non-ionizing radiations, thermal and electrical injury).
Injury by free radicals.
Nutritional diseases.
Biological causes of disease: pathogenesis of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Bacterial toxins. Superantigens. Tetanus. Dyphteria. Streptococcal and post-streptococcal diseases. Cytopathic and non cytopathic viruses. Herpesviruses. HBV, HCV. influenza. Malaria.

Cellular pathology:
Cell injury and cellular adaptations. Regressive processes. Atrophy. Degenerative processes. Lysosomal storage diseases. Cell death: apoptosis and necrosis.

Inflammation:
Acute inflammation. Inflammatory cells. Innate immunity receptors. Innate immunity defects. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines. Chemokines. Leukocyte migration.
Systemic effects of inflammation. Acute phase response. Septic shock. Classification and outcome of acute inflammation. Chronic inflammation. Granulomas. Inflammation and cancer. Autoinflammatory disorders.

Immunology and Immunopathology:
Cells and Tissues of the Immune System. General features of the Innate and Adaptive Immune response. Origin and maturation of T and B lymphocytes. The Antigen receptor gene rearrangement (Immunoglobulin and T Cell receptors). 
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Antigen processing and presentation to T  Lymphocytes. Dendritic Cells. Activation of T Lymphocytes. Effector mechanisms of Cell-mediated Immunity. Cytotoxic and Helper T cells subpopulations. Cytokines. Natural Killer Cells. 
B cell activation and Antibody production. Effector mechanisms of Humoral Immunity.
Immunity to Pathogens. Mucosal Immunity. The Hypersensitivity Reactions. Congenital and acquired Immunodeficiencies. Immunological Tolerance and Autoimmunity. Systemic and organ specific autoimmune disease. Immunological Memory and vaccines. Transplantation Immunology. Immunity to tumors. Tumor escape. Anti-tumor immunotherapy.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Bases of Disease - Elsevier.
Rubin’s Pathology - Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine.
Pontieri, Russo, Frati - Istituzioni di patologia generale e fisiopatologia generale, Piccin.
AA VV - Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia, Idelson-Gnocchi

Dianzani -Trattato di Patologia Generale, UTET.
Parham - The immune system. Garland Science.
Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai - Cellular and Molecular Immunology. Elsevier.
Mak, Saunders - Primer to the Immune Response. Elsevier.

Coico, Sunshine, immunology: a short course Ed. Wiley Blackwell

As optional research material, reviews in English language concerning several topics of the course will be available in Aulaweb.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: mariacristina.mingari@unige.it

Ricevimento: Students have the possibility to contact the teacher by e-mail (claudia.cantoni@unige.it) or by phone (010 56362845) and ask for an appointment.  Address 1: Laboratorio di Immunologia Clinica e Sperimentale, Padiglione 2, Istituto G. Gaslini, L. go G. Gaslini 5 Address 2: Sezione di Patologia Generale - DIMES, Via L. Alberti, 2

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: gabriella.pietra@unige.it

Ricevimento: Students can contact the teachers by mail (maidep@unige.it) for interviews The teacher's studio is located in the Pathology Section of Experimental Medicine Department (DIMES) , via  L.B. Alberti, 2 16132 Genova

Exam Board

GABRIELLA PIETRA (President)

ALDAMARIA PULITI (President)

SONIA SCARFI' (President)

CHIARA VITALE (President)

WILLIAM BRUNO (President)

MARIA CRISTINA MINGARI (President)

PAOLA GHIORZO (President)

VINCENZO DI PILATO (President)

ANNA MARIA SCHITO

MARIA ADELAIDE PRONZATO

EUGENIO DEBBIA

ANNA MARCHESE

CLAUDIA CANTONI (President and Coordinator of Integrated Course)

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Teaching is divided into 90 hours of classroom lectures on all the topics of the syllabus. These topics are explained by the teachers through PowerPoint presentations and all the lessons are shared in Aulaweb. The teachers always recommend the use of a textbook to expand the overall view of the subject. Attendance in this course is mandatory.

The frontal lessons could be carried out remotely in online mode using the Teams platform.

 

 

LESSONS START

2nd march 2021

EXAMS

Exam description

Students are allowed to undergo the oral examination only if they have passed the test concerning the modules of the first semester with at least 18/30 (this mark is valid for 18 months). 
The oral examination consists of a 30 minutes interview in the presence of the course teachers. The student, in the presence of the committee, should demonstrate the ability to critically discuss all the subjects covered in the questions. Through the discussion of different topics, the committee verifies the fulfillment of the expected earning outcomes. 
At the end of the oral examination, teachers elaborate a mark deriving from the weighted average of the partial/preliminary marks and from an overall judgment/evaluation of the student.
Available dates for examination will be 3 for the winter session (January-February) and 4 for the summer session (June-September). An extra date outside the periods indicated in the course guidelines will be given only to students without obligation to attend lessons.
In order to attend the oral examination, students will have to register on the website (https://servizionline.unige.it/studenti/esami/prenotazione) at least four days before the examination date.  

The exam could be carried out remotely in online mode using the Teams platform.

Assessment methods

Verification of learning is carried out through the oral exam, aimed at verifying the real acquisition by the student of the expected learning outcomes.
In order to pass the exam the student will have:
- to know the etiological basis and the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases and how to analyze their main cellular and molecular aspects;
- to understand the different immunological mechanisms involved in the immune response and to know the diseases associated to the dysfunction of the immune system.
The following items will contribute to the final mark:
- ability to critically discuss the requested topics;
- accuracy, clarity, synthesis and fluency;
- competence in the subject;
- speaking ability and correct use of terminology.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
01/04/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale Sede: Aula di Patologia Generale - Via Alberti 2
11/06/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
16/06/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale Sede: Aula 3 Polo Alberti
02/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
06/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale Sede: Aula 3 Polo Alberti
20/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
22/07/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale Sede: Aula 3 Polo ALberti
10/09/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
20/09/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale Sede: Aula di Patologia Generale - Via Alberti 2

FURTHER INFORMATION

Students have the opportunity to contact the teacher by e-mail and ask for an appointment depending on the needs.