HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY

HISTOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY

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Last update 30/06/2020 18:51
Code
58018
ACADEMIC YEAR
2020/2021
CREDITS
2 credits during the 1st year of 8745 MEDICINE AND SURGERY (LM-41) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/17
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (MEDICINE AND SURGERY)
semester
1° Semester
modules
This unit is a module of:
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course aims at providing students with basic knowledge of the molecular mechanisms supporting the principal cell functions, starting from their morphology and internal organization.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Aim of this course is to provide the students with the knowledge of the basic principles of Cell Biology and Genetics as well as the ability to understand and analyze biological problems. Students will be requested to get acquainted with cell morphology and functions at the structural, ultrastructural and molecular levels

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Students will be requested to get acquainted with eukaryotic cell morphology and functions at structural, ultrastructural and molecular level.

Teaching methods

Citology module includes 2 CFU of lectures.

It is possible that the method of conducting the lessons is changed due to emergency situations that prevent the performance of the lessons in classroom. In this case, the lessons will be carried out online by the use of the Teams IT platform.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Structure and molecular organization of plasma membrane: the mosaic fluid model; membrane lipids and their properties; extrinsic and intrinsic proteins; composition and functions of the glycocalyx. Transport of small molecules across the plasma membrane.

Transport vesicles. Processes of vesicle formation and detachment: Clathrin protein, Adaptin proteins, COP proteins, Dynamin protein. Specificity of transport and vesicle fusion processes: Rab protein, v-SNARE and t-SNARE. Transport of macromolecules across the plasma membrane. Constitutive and regulated exocytosis. The endocytosis: pinocytosis, endocytosis mediated by receptor, phagocytosis, phagocytosis of self cells. Transcytosis, Exosomes.

Composition of the cytosol. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum: structure, role in lipid metabolism, in detoxification processes, in glycogenolysis and calcium accumulation.

Ultrastructural organization and function of granular endoplasmic reticulum. Free ribosomes and ribosomes associated with membranes. Main stages in the translation process. Post-translational modifications of proteins, glycosylation, role of molecular chaperones.

Golgi complex: ultrastructure, biosynthetic processes, post-translational modifications of proteins (mainly glycosylation) and sorting of molecules synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Early and late endosomes. Lysosomes: biogenesis, morphology, hydrolytic enzymes. Autophagy. Secretory lysosomes. Secretory lysosomes and genetic diseases. Secretory lysosomes and immune cells.

Mechanisms for the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins: the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

The peroxisome: structure and functions. Mention of diseases associated with dysfunction of peroxisomes

Mitochondria: morphology, distribution and replication. MAM, mitochondria-associated membranes. Mitochondrial protein import. Mitochondrial genome. Mention of association between mutations in the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Localization and function of mitochondrial enzyme complexes: the main aspects of the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Role  of mitochondria in apoptosis, steroid hormones and heme group synthesis.

Thermogenic role in brown adipose tissue. Endosymbiotic theory.

The cytoskeleton. Microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments: molecular organization and distribution in the cell. Protein associated to microtubules (chinesine and dynein) and to microfilaments (actin binding proteins). The centrosome. The cilia: structure and function.

Cell nucleus, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex. Nucleocytoplasmic transport. Chromatin and nuclear matrix. Euchromatin and heterochromatin. The nucleolus: structure and molecular organization; the synthesis of rRNA and assembly of ribosomal subunits.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alberts et al.; "L'essenziale di biologia molecolare della cellula"; Zanichelli Editori.

Zaccheo e Pestarino; "Citologia, istologia e anatomia microscopica"; Pearson

Maraldi e Tacchetti; "Biologia-Citologia medica"; Edi Ermes

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: roberta.castriconi@unige.it

Ricevimento: By appointment by e-mail: emanuela.marcenaro@unige.it

Ricevimento: Student reception by appointment, contact the teacher via e-mail: simona.sivori@unige.it  

Exam Board

SIMONA SIVORI (President)

ROBERTA CASTRICONI (President)

EMANUELA MARCENARO (President)

PAOLA GHIORZO (President)

RODOLFO QUARTO (President and Coordinator of Integrated Course)

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Citology module includes 2 CFU of lectures.

It is possible that the method of conducting the lessons is changed due to emergency situations that prevent the performance of the lessons in classroom. In this case, the lessons will be carried out online by the use of the Teams IT platform.

ORARI

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile su EasyAcademy.

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam consists of verifying - through a written test - the preparation acquired by the student in relation to the objectives of the teaching module.

It is possible that emergency situations prevent the execution of written exams in classroom. In this case, the examination method will change from written examination to oral examination and the Teams IT platform will be used.

Assessment methods

The verification of the achievement of the formative objectives of the module will consist of a written test. The passing of the module will be obtained with at least 6 correct answers out of 10.