BIOLOGY APPLIED TO DIAGNOSTIC AND PRESERVATION OF CULT. HERIY. MOD. III

BIOLOGY APPLIED TO DIAGNOSTIC AND PRESERVATION OF CULT. HERIY. MOD. III

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iten
Code
101277
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
3 credits during the 1st year of 9009 Techniques for Conservation and Restoration of cultural heritages (LM-11) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/03
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Techniques for Conservation and Restoration of cultural heritages)
semester
2° Semester
Teaching materials

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The aim of module 3-Botany module is to provide basic knowledge of systematics and plant ecology related to the main groups of plant organisms involved as biodeteriogens or to other aspects of the management and conservation of Cultural Heritage. The bases of the wood anatomy and of the main characteristics useful for identifying the species most commonly used in artistic and archaeological artefacts are also provided.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Module III - Botany aims to provide students who come from different educational pathways with a knowledge base about the importance of plants in relation to cultural heritage, of which they can be part (eg in parks, historic gardens, artistic and archaeological materials). For this purpose the main groups of plants (Cyanobacteria, Mushrooms, Algae, Lichens, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes) are illustrated and the role that each can play both in the biodeterioration of cultural heritage, and in regard to materials. The most important materials such as paper, wood, fabrics, stone materials, composite materials are taken into consideration. The main objective is to enable the student to identify the origin of conservation problems and to suggest possible intervention actions, possibly involving specialists for different categories of micro- and macroscopic plants. in order to allow the identification of different species, used as material constituting objects of artistic and archaeological interest. In order to allow the identification of different plant essences, used as material constituting objects of artistic and archaeological interest, the anatomical characteristics of the wood are illustrated in detail.
Attendance at lectures and exercises will enable students to orientate themselves in the field of diagnosis of damage to cultural heritage caused by plants, identify the causes in terms of type of organism and suggest contrast actions based on knowledge of plant ecology.
With regard to wooden artefacts, apart from the main aspects linked to biodeterioration, students will need to know the methodologies (even simple) and the anatomical characters on the basis of which it is possible to safely identify different types of wood from the most common European species.

Teaching methods

Module III - Botany (3 CFU) includes lectures (~ 2.5 CFU) and laboratory exercises (~ 0.5 CFU), including samples taken at appropriate sites (eg historic buildings, monumental cemeteries, decorated plasters , etc.). During the lessons, the teacher uses PowerPoint presentations which are progressively uploaded to the Aulaweb website and are useful reference material for those who lose a few lessons and prepare for the exam. In the exercises, simple sampling experiments and micro-and macroscopic analysis of biodeteriogens are proposed, in particular, the students prepare, possibly color and observe with the optical microscope material taken with the teacher as indicated above and are guided to the identification of the observed plant organisms. In the case of Spermatophytes observed on the ground, the teacher identifies them by explaining their morphological and ecological characteristics, for example. about the potential danger they can represent towards historical-artistic artefacts.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Taxonomic, functional and ecological characteristics of the main plant biodeteriogens: Cyanobacteria, Algae, Mushrooms, Lichens, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes (Gymnosperms, Angiosperms). Phenomenology and analysis of biological deterioration processes of cultural heritage. Ecology of biodeterioration. Potential hazard index of Tracheophytes for the evaluation of biodeterioration of architectural and archaeological assets. The biodeterioration processes in relation to the materials of the cultural heritage, the type of environment, the geographical and climatic contexts. The conservation of cultural assets. Physical, chemical and biological methods for the control and prevention of biodeterioration from plants. Wood as a material of archaeological and historical-artistic interest: morphological and anatomical characteristics useful for the identification of the most common woods used for artifacts of artistic and archaeological interest in Europe.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

The texts indicated below are specifically dedicated to students of cultural heritage conservation courses; therefore they represent a valid help to face the program foreseen by the teaching. However, they also include many topics outside the latter and must therefore be considered general references.


Caneva G., Nugari M. P., Salvadori O., 2005 - Plant biology for cultural heritage [volume I] Biodeterioration and conservation. Nardini Editore
Caneva G., Nugari M. P., Salvadori O., 2002 - Biology in Restoration. Nardini Editore
Caneva G., Nugari M. P., Salvadori O., 2005 - Plant biology for cultural heritage [volume II] Knowledge and Valorization. Nardini Editore.
Nardi Berti R., 2006 - The anatomical structure of wood. CNR - Ivalsa
  

 Specialized scientific publications are used during the lessons to illustrate case studies and research updates.
   Furthermore, the PowerPoint presentations used for the lessons and uploaded to the Aulaweb website dedicated to teaching constitute further help
   for learning and as a guide in following a logical sequence of topics, often preparatory to each other.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Students are invited by appointment, to be agreed with the teacher via email contact (carlo.montanari@unige.it)

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Module III - Botany (3 CFU) includes lectures (~ 2.5 CFU) and laboratory exercises (~ 0.5 CFU), including samples taken at appropriate sites (eg historic buildings, monumental cemeteries, decorated plasters , etc.). During the lessons, the teacher uses PowerPoint presentations which are progressively uploaded to the Aulaweb website and are useful reference material for those who lose a few lessons and prepare for the exam. In the exercises, simple sampling experiments and micro-and macroscopic analysis of biodeteriogens are proposed, in particular, the students prepare, possibly color and observe with the optical microscope material taken with the teacher as indicated above and are guided to the identification of the observed plant organisms. In the case of Spermatophytes observed on the ground, the teacher identifies them by explaining their morphological and ecological characteristics, for example. about the potential danger they can represent towards historical-artistic artefacts.

LESSONS START

the lesson will be given on he second semester, starting from February 17th 2020 and will end by April 2020.

Consult detailed timetable at the following link: https://easyacademy.unige.it/portalestudenti/

EXAMS

Exam description

The knowledge of the course arguments and the ability to expose them correctly are evaluated through an oral exam that implies three to four questions that span throughout the program and the exercises carried out.

Assessment methods

The learning of the disciplinary contents of the course is evaluated through some questions that allow to understand if the student has made these notions his own and is able to pass safely from one topic to another. The property of language and the ability to transmit acquired notions is also evaluated.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Regular attendance to the lessons is strongly recommended, and especially to the laboratory exercises