LAB OF ANDVANCED THERMODYNAMICS

LAB OF ANDVANCED THERMODYNAMICS

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iten
Code
62424
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
6 credits during the 1st year of 9012 PHYSICS (LM-17) GENOVA

6 credits during the 3nd year of 8758 PHYSICS (L-30) GENOVA

SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
FIS/01
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (PHYSICS)
semester
2° Semester
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course presents some advanced topics of thermodynamics through the observation of  phenomena in laboartory expriments and their discussion in  classroom with the aid of simple thermodynamic models, of statistical mechanics and quantum physics. Topics covered are vacuum physics, systems at liquid helium temperature, superfluidity and superconductivity.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Acquisition of advanced experimental knowledges and methodologies of thermodynamics applied to low temperatures and to the detection of radiation, thermal sensors and associated electronics.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The aims are the acquisition of experimental knowledges and methodologies of vacuum and low temperatures for the experimental study of complex thermodynamic systems such as superfluids and superconductive systems. The course ends with the experimental study of one or two of the following low-temperature devices that are of interest for scientific and technological applications: superconducting junctions (SIS), quantum interference devices (SQUID), quantum dots (QDot) and single electron transistors (SET), bolometers and superconducting calorimeters (TES). The technologies of vacuum and  production of low temperatures and, even if at early stages, those of low temperature devices, are now used by many industries in the North-West / Tuscany basins (Thales Alenia Space -Mi , OHB Italia-Mi, Kaiser Italia -Li, Simic -Cn , Rial Vacuum -Pr , Pasquali Microwave System -Fi , ASG -Ge, Columbus -Ge, Agilent Technologies -To, ...), therefore these topics have by istself professional merit.

Teaching methods

Classroom lectures and 5 afternoon laboratory works at  Kelvin temperatures.
Arguments of laboratory works.
1-Cooling with LHe and Thermometry.  2-Thermal conductivity and measurement of the thermal input of a cryostat.  3-Fluid-superfluid lambda transition.  5 - Transition from normal to superconductive state.
5 - Measure of a device: Superconducting-Isolating-Superconductor tunnel junction (within the limits of availability of the devices themselves, the use of a different device can be agreed with the students).

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Topics.
1. Vacuum: fluid and dry sealed primary pumps, turbomolecular, fluid pumps, getter and ionic pumps, vacuum measurement with mechanical, thermal, ionic cathodic hot and cold transducers.
2. Cryogenics: Stirling and Gifford Mac Mahon cycles, pulsed tubes, gas liquefaction and Joule Thomson expansion, liquefying methods for nitrogen, hydrogen  and helium, magnetic refrigeration, dilution fridges. Temperature measurements: absolute temperature and standard scale up to mK, primary and secondary thermometers.
3. Physics of some low temperature systems: electrical and thermal conduction, superfluidity and lambda transition, He-I and He-II and London model, thermomechanical effects, superconductivity and its experimental evidences, classification in superconductors of type I and II, elements of the theory microscopic BCS and forbidden gap, thermodynamics of the superconductors and hints of the Ginzburg Landau theory.
4. Physics of some low-temperature device, one or two selected among: superconducting junctions (SIS), quantum interference device (SQUID), quantum dots (QDot) and single electron transistors (SET), bolometers and superconducting calorimeters (TES) .

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Zemansky: “Calore e Termodinamica”

G.K.White: “Experimental Techniques in low temperature physics”

R. Richardson, E. Smith: “Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics and Low temperature”

O.V. Lounasma: “Experimental Principles and Methods Below 1K” 

 

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday from 2 pm to 3 pm compatibly with other teaching commitments. It is required to arrange an appointment via e-mail: flavio.gatti@unige.it.

Exam Board

FLAVIO GATTI (President)

MARIO AGOSTINO ROCCA

DANIELE MARRE'

GAETANO GALLINARO

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Classroom lectures and 5 afternoon laboratory works at  Kelvin temperatures.
Arguments of laboratory works.
1-Cooling with LHe and Thermometry.  2-Thermal conductivity and measurement of the thermal input of a cryostat.  3-Fluid-superfluid lambda transition.  5 - Transition from normal to superconductive state.
5 - Measure of a device: Superconducting-Isolating-Superconductor tunnel junction (within the limits of availability of the devices themselves, the use of a different device can be agreed with the students).

LESSONS START

Second semester A.A. 2018-19

EXAMS

Exam description

Oral examination on the arguments of the course, or, execution of a laboratory work with presentation of the results.

Assessment methods

Verification of the knowledge acquired in the interview or, in the presentation of the results of the laboratory experience.It is based on a fixed number of questions concerning the examination program and allows the commission to judge, as well as preparation, the skills of synthesis and communication.