# NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS 1

OVERVIEW

The course of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Astrophysics 1 is held in the second semester of the third year of the bachelor degree program of Physics. It aims to provide an introduction to the physics of nuclei and elementary particles and related astrophysical and cosmological topics. Particular attention is paid to the historical development of these disciplines, their applications and experimental techniques.

## AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims at providing students with a basic knowledge of nuclei and particle physics, and related astrophysics topics, with particular attention to the definition of the historical developments of these disciplines, the most important observables, the methods to measure them and the most significant experimental tools.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims to provide some simple introductory concepts of the physics of matter constituents. Atomic nuclei and subnuclear particles are analyzed and, by studying their properties, some characteristics are derived of the strong and weak nuclear interactions that students will deepen in dedicated courses, as well as the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions with which students have become familiar in general physics courses. We introduce concepts of astrophysics and cosmology related to nuclear and particle physics, in particular stellar and galactic astrophysics, primordial nucleosynthesis, cosmic rays. Knowledge is also provided on the experimental tools for the study of nuclei, subnuclear particles and astrophysical observables.

At the end of the course students will acquire a basic knowledge of the physics of nuclei, particles and astrophysics that will serve as a support for those who intend to deepen these disciplines in dedicated courses and which will nevertheless provide an introductory overview also for those who will focus on other branches. Students will be able to perform simple calculations of phenomena and nuclear and subnuclear reactions, especially in the case of common applications such as radiodating, radiation dosimetry and energy production, to determine the main features of some experimental apparatus according to various needs, and to evaluate the main elements of selected astrophysical and cosmological phenomena.

Teaching methods

Traditional lessons with theory and applications. Slides used during the lessons will be provided via Aulaweb.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

**The atomic nucleus. **The discovery of the Atomic Nucleus, Measurement of Radius and charge density, Systematics of the masses and binding energies, magnetic and electric moments, Classification of electromagnetic transitions. Isotopic spin. Nucleare stability and instability, laws of radioactive decay. Alpha decay, beta decay. Cross sections. Nuclear reactions; fission and fusion. Nuclear models: drop model , Fermi gas model, shell model. Dosimetry and dating (brief outline).

**Interaction matter-particles.** Charged particles: energy loss by ionization and radiation. Photons: photoelectric effect, Compton, Pair production. Neutron-matter interactions. Introduction to particle detectors and accelerators

**Astrophysics**. Definitions, instruments and observables. Model of the Big Bang. Model of the star, Energy balance, phases of Stellar Evolution. Reactions of thermal fusion, proton-proton chain. Production of neutrinos. Galaxies. Planetary systems

**Elementary particles.** Cosmic rays and the first discoveries of sub-nuclear particles: positron, muon, pion and kaon. Leptons, hadrons, resonances, mesons, baryons. Parity and its violation, lepton numbers conservation, flavour oscillations of neutrinos. The elementary constituents of matter in the Standard Model; the open problems (brief outline)

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Povh,Rith,Scholtz e Zetsche: Particelle e nuclei - Boringhieri 2002

Mukhin: Experimental Nuclear Physics vol 1 e 2 - Mir Publishers Moscow

C.E.Rolfs, W.S.Rodney: Cauldrons in the Cosmos - Univ. Chicago Press.

D. Perkins: Introduction to High Energy Physics.

D. Griffiths: Introduction to Elementary Particles - Wiley VCH

W.S.C. Williams: Nuclear and Particle Physics

## TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

**Ricevimento:** by appointment

Exam Board

MAURO GINO TAIUTI (President)

SILVANO TOSI

MATTEO SANGUINETI

ENRICO ROBUTTI

PAOLO PRATI

FABRIZIO FERRO

## LESSONS

Teaching methods

Traditional lessons with theory and applications. Slides used during the lessons will be provided via Aulaweb.

LESSONS START

February 17th, 2020

## EXAMS

Exam description

Traditional, written and oral exams. The written exam consists of a set of exercises and problems that verify the ability of applying the concepts learned to simple cases. The oral exam consists in a predefined number of questions on the various parts of the course to verify the level of understanding of the topics dealt with in the course.

Assessment methods

To help students evaluate their level before the exams, simulations of the written exams are performed, without grades being assigned.