HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

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iten
Code
66900
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
5 credits during the 2nd year of 8756 Biotechnology (L-2) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/09
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Biotechnology)
semester
1° Semester
Teaching materials

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course will give the fundamental principles of cellular physiology to understand the mechanisms at the basis of the function of human tissues and organs. Students will acquire basic knowledge on how main tissues and organs of the human body work, their complex relationships and the control systems to maintain homeostasis. The laboratory activity will integrate the contents of the lectures with experimental models and methods to evaluate the main physiological parameters.

Teaching methods

The teaching activity is organized in lectures for a total amount of time of 64 hours. During these lectures all the issues the student have to know for the final exam will be explained and discussed with the help of visual aids.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Cell membrane functions: transport across cell membrane. Passive and active transports (primary and secondary). Ion Channels and pumps

Resting membrane potential. Local and graduate potential. Excitable membranes. Structure and function of excitable cells. Electrical messages in the nervous system. Functional classes of neurons: afferent, efferent, interneurons. Specialized neuronal function: integration, start, conduction and transmission of the pulse. Action Potential: phases, threshold, whole or no law, refractory. Genesis and propagation of the action potential. Action potential in different types of excitable cells. Synaptic transmission: electrical and chemical synapses. Neurotransmitters and receptors.

Neuromuscolar junction. Motility and muscle tissue types. Organization of skeletal and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle fiber structure and molecular mechanism of contraction. The role of calcium in muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle motor unit. Excitation/contraction coupling. Comparative aspects of muscle contraction: skeletal and smooth muscle. General organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. General organization of the autonomic nervous system. The sensory system. Principles of sensory physiology: transduction and codification. Adaptation. Somatosensory cortex. Somatic sensation. Somatic receptors. Spinal reflexes: general properties. Spinal cord reflexes: muscle stretch reflex, Golgi tendon reflex and flexor reflex. Motor system: reflex, rhythmic and voluntary movements. Role of the cerebellum and the base ganglia in the motor control.

Cardiovascular system. Anatomy of cardiac muscle fibers. Myocardial specific and myocardial work. Cardiac electrical activity: heartbeat origin, conductive system, atrial and ventricular cardiac action potentials. Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and control mechanisms. Circulation. Blood pressure and its regulation. The microcirculation and lymphatic system. Capillary fluid exchange. Blood coagulation and hemostasis.

Functional organization of lung and airways. Mechanics of pulmonary ventilation. Pulmonary Compliance. Gas concentrations and gas partial pressures. Principles of gas exchange. Transport of respiratory gases in blood. Nervous and chemical regulation of respiration.

Kidney structure: the nephron. The iuxtaglomerular apparatus. Renal clearance. Glomerular filtration and GFR. Renal tubular functions: passive and active transports; reabsorption and secretion. Renal control of extracellular fluid volume and osmolarity: urine concentration and dilution (ADH). Endocrine regulation of renal function. Acid-base regulation.

Anatomic-functional organization of the gastrointestinal system. Motility and secretions: saliva, gastric secretion, pancreatic, bile and enteric secretion. Liver functions. Nervous and endocrine regulation of gastrointestinal function. Digestion and absorption of glucids, lipids, proteins.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gerard J Tortora e Bryan Derrickson
Principi di Anatomia e Fisiologia Umana
Editrice Ambrosiana

Modulo “Fisiologia Umana”

Alternative textbooks for the Human Phisiology part of the course:
Silverthorn D.U.,  FISIOLOGIA UMANA un approccio integrato, Casa Editrice PearsonStanfield & Germann FISIOLOGIA, EdiSESD’Angelo e Peres FISIOLOGIA edi-ermes
The slides of the presentations in PDF format can be downloaded from AulaWEB.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: silvia.giovedi@unige.it

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: anna.fassio@unige.it

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: benfenat@unige.it

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The teaching activity is organized in lectures for a total amount of time of 64 hours. During these lectures all the issues the student have to know for the final exam will be explained and discussed with the help of visual aids.

LESSONS START

October 1st, 2018

EXAMS

Exam description

oral test

Assessment methods

The knowledge and understanding of the morphology and structure of organs and systems of the human body will be assessed. Moreover, the comprehension of how the organ structure determines his own function will be evaluated.