TOXICOLOGY

TOXICOLOGY

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iten
Code
80326
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
5 credits during the 3nd year of 8452 Pharmacy (LM-13) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/14
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Pharmacy)
semester
2° Semester
modules
This unit is a module of:
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The module of Toxicology is part of the integrated course of General Pharmacology and Toxicology, which is taught during the third year of the Master's Degree in Pharmacy, and concerrns the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The module of Toxicology aims at providing students with the basic principles of the interaction of xenobiotics with the different targets of the human body and how these interactions lead to toxic effects. 

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The module of Toxicology will provide students with a solid knowledge of toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics, organ toxicity, toxicology of drug addiction, toxicity tests and risk assessment.

Toxicodynamics is the study of the effects of toxicants or their metabolites on living systems, with a special focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of their biological actions.

Toxicokinetics refers to all the biological processes underlying absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of toxicants. Its primary objective is to analyse the systemic exposure  to toxicants achieved in laboratory animals and its relationship to dose level and time-course of the toxic effects.

Organ toxicity is the study of the effects of toxicant exposure at the level of the different organs and tissues.

Toxicology of drug addiction refers to the study of the toxicological properties of drugs of abuse (e.g. alcohol, heroin, cocaine) and of the biological basis for drug abuse and addiction.

Finally, toxicity tests and risk assessment describe the in vitro and in vivo tests to assess the toxic effects of new chemical entities that are necessary for evaluating risks for human health and safety.

  

Teaching methods

Traditional lectures during which all the course topics will be illustrated in great details. The teaching materials used during the lectures will be available for students on the website of AulaWeb.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Introduction to Toxicology. Definition of toxic agent. General and specialist areas of toxicology. Local or systemic toxicity, immediate and delayed toxicity, reversible or irreversible toxicity.

Toxicokinetics. Factors influencing toxicity: absorbed dose, route of exposure, duration and frequency of exposure, toxication and detoxication processes, elimination rate.

Toxicodynamics. Reaction with the biological target: target attributes, types of reaction with the target, effects on the target. Major cellular toxicity mechanisms: structural damage or dysfunction. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial toxicity, alteration of calcium homeostasis. Methods for the measurement free radicals, of oxidative stress of phospholipids, proteins and DNA, of intracellular calcium. Cell death: necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. Regulated necrosis (necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis). Cellular and tissue repair mechanisms. Genotoxicity, chemical carcinogenesis and developmental toxicity.

Toxicity tests and risk assessment. Acute toxicity test and determination of the LD50. Therapeutic index and certain safety factor. Subacute, subchronic and chronic toxicity tests. Short and long-term carcinogenesis tests. Genotoxicity tests. Developmental toxicity test. Risk assessment methods.

Organ toxicity. Toxic responses of the nervous system, the blood, the heart and vascular system, the liver, the kidney, the respiratory system and the skin.

Drug addiction. Definition of drug addiction. The neurobiological basis of drug addiction. Ethanol, opiates, amphetamines and derivatives, cocaine and cannabis.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Textbooks

Klaasen C. Casarett & Doull's. Toxicology: the basic science of poisons. Ed. McGraw-Hill

Hodgson E. A Texbook of Modern Toxicology. Ed. Wiley

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Daily by appointment (tel. 010-3532659; e-mail: fedele@difar.unige.it)  

Exam Board

ERNESTO FEDELE (President)

ANNA MARIA PITTALUGA

LUCA RAITERI

MARCO MILANESE

MASSIMO GRILLI

CHIARA CERVETTO

GIAMBATTISTA BONANNO

TIZIANA BONIFACINO

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Traditional lectures during which all the course topics will be illustrated in great details. The teaching materials used during the lectures will be available for students on the website of AulaWeb.

EXAMS

Exam description

The integrated course of General Pharmacology and Toxicology involves a single oral examination of a total duration of approximately 40-50 min.

In order to take the General Pharmacology and Toxicology examination, students must have passed the examination of the following disciplines: Mathematics, Physics, General and Inorganic Chemistry, Anatomy, Vegetal and Animal Biology, General Physiology, Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applied Biochemistry.

Assessment methods

The assessment of learning outcomes will be carried out during the examination through the evaluation of the student's competence on the different topics of the course program, the use of appropriate scientific terminology and capabilities of scientific reasoning.