HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

_
iten
Code
61786
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
6 credits during the 1st year of 9015 Molecular and health biology (LM-6) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/09
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Molecular and health biology)
semester
1° Semester
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course explores the study of the mechanisms of regulation of metabolic homeostasis in humans, addressing the regulation of the various functions by the nervous system and the endocrine system and highlighting the existing integrations between the various systems.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims to provide in-depth knowledge on physiological regulation in humans, highlighting and enhancing the relationships of connection and interdependence between processes and physiological mechanisms.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participation in the course will allow students of the Degree in Molecular and Health Biology to deepen the knowledge of Physiology learned during the Bachelor's Degree, with specific reference to humans. This knowledge is necessary for the career opportunities of the biologist in health and research.

The course aims to provide a complete vision of Human Physiology and allows the student to acquire detailed information on how the different organs of the human body work, on the dynamic integration of the organs in systems, on the general mechanisms of homeostatic control under normal conditions and adaptation, with a specific attention to the molecular mechanisms involved. Taking advantage of the physiological bases,  hints of pathophysiology will be provided.

 The student must be able to:

• know how the human organism work at the molecular, cellular, organ and system levels.

• Acquire an integrated view of the physiological mechanisms that regulate homeostasis and adaptation processes in humans.

• know how the human organism works as a whole.

• Understanding simple pathophysiological situations resulting from the loss of homeostatic regulation.

• Highlight the link between structure and function at the level of organs and systems.

• Acquire a correct terminology in the pathophysiological field.

PREREQUISITES

The following basic knowledge of physiology and pathology is required to effectively address the teaching content: 1) animal physiology, 2) general pathology.

Teaching methods

The teaching method includes 24 lectures of 2 hours each. Lessons are delivered through multimedia presentations. Frequency is highly recommended.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Recall of physiology of the nervous system and of the endocrine system. Endocrine system dysfunction: hypofunction, hyperfunction, sensitivity deficit. The hypothalamus-pituitary system. Hypothalamus: structure and functions. Posterior pituitary: structure and functions. Neuroendocrine reflexes. Vasopressin: osmotic regulation, pressure / volume regulation, insipid diabetes. Oxytocin: childbirth and lactation. Anterior pituitary: structure and functions. The pituitary portal system. The hypothalamic releasing  and inhibiting factors. The hormones of the anterior pituitary. Short and long feedback. Prolactin and lactation regulation. Endocrine growth regulation: the GH-IGF-IGFBP system. Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Regulation of body temperature.

Stress response: nervous arm and endocrine arm. Effects of catecholamines. Effects of cortisol. Allostasis and allostatic load. Stress and dysmetabolism. Stress, immune system and inflammation. Emotions and stress response. Integration between biological and psychological and social systems (psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology: PNEI). Pre and perinatal stress. The role of the intestinal microbiota.

Steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex. Hormonal regulation of ion and water balance. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Effects of aldosterone. Natriuretic peptides.

Hormonal regulation of the reproductive function. Steroidogenesis in the gonads. Hormonal regulation of sexual differentiation. Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Testis: Sertoli cells, Leydig cells. Hypotheses on the factors influencing the onset of puberty. Ovary: ovarian cycle, theca cells and granulosa cells. Hormonal contraception. Pregnancy. Menopause. Adrenarche and adrenal androgens.

Hormonal regulation of glycemic homeostasis. Endocrine function of the pancreas.

Liver structure: microscopy. The hepatic lobule. Characteristics of the different cell types of the liver: hepatocytes, sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and stellate cells. Role of the liver in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Cooperation of liver cells in normal physiological functions and in metabolic alterations. Liver function markers. Alterations of normal hepatic architecture: clinical forms and responses to acute and chronic hepatic injury. Partial hepatectomy and hepatic regeneration: cascade activation of early and late events.

Hormonal regulation of calcium homeostasis. Regulation of intracellular calcium concentration. Parathormone: effects on bone and  kidney. Vitamin D: biosynthesis and introduction with diet, effects on intestine, bone, immune system, rickets and osteomalacia. Calcitonin.

Biorhythms. Melatonin. The sleep-wake cycle. Memory and learning. Molecular dysfunctions in neural communication.

 

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

-Silverthorn Fisiologia CEA

- Sherwood Fisiologia Umana Zanichelli

The multimedia material used during the lessons will be made available on AulaWeb, together with any useful articles for the deepening of certain topics.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Agreed directly with the teacher. Make an appointment by email: idemori@unige.it. Office: DISTAV; 5 floor, Palazzo delle Scienze, corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa Tel: 0103538246

Exam Board

ILARIA DEMORI (President)

ADRIANA VOCI

ELENA GRASSELLI

BRUNO PIETRO BURLANDO

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The teaching method includes 24 lectures of 2 hours each. Lessons are delivered through multimedia presentations. Frequency is highly recommended.

LESSONS START

For lessons start and timetables, please see the following link: http: //www.distav.unige.it/ccsbio/orario-lezioni-bms

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam consists of an oral interview of about thirty minutes, conducted by a commission consisting of at least two members, during which the student will have to explain some of the topics covered in class. At least 2 calls will be available in the winter session (January-February) and 5 calls in the summer session (June, July, September).

Assessment methods

The Commission verifies the achievement of the educational objectives by asking different questions related to the program actually carried out during the lessons. Details on the degree of in-depth knowledge for each topic will be provided during the lessons.

The oral examination allows to evaluate the knowledge of the fundamental elements of the subject and the ability to link the various topics. During the interview the Commission will verify if the student has acquired the ability to apply the theoretical concepts to simple concrete contexts. The quality of the speech and the use of the correct specialized scientific terminology will also be evaluated. When the training objectives are not achieved, the student is invited to better verify his / her knowledge and possibly to make use of further explanations by contacting the teacher in charge of the course.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
10/06/2020 09:00 GENOVA Orale
14/07/2020 09:00 GENOVA Orale
01/09/2020 09:00 GENOVA Orale
15/09/2020 09:00 GENOVA Orale

FURTHER INFORMATION

Regular frequency is strongly recommended.