BOTANY WITH LABORATORY (1° MODULE)

BOTANY WITH LABORATORY (1° MODULE)

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iten
Code
70044
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
5 credits during the 1st year of 8762 Biological Sciences (L-13) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/01
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Biological Sciences)
semester
2° Semester
modules
This unit is a module of:
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

Botany studies the various aspects of plant life, including the plant cell, the different levels of organization, the morphological and anatomical structure of plants, developmental and reproductive mechanisms, highlighting the relationships between structure and function.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course provides the acquisition of fundamental notions about the cell, the anatomical plant tissues and structure in the various groups. It also deals with developmental mechanisms and with the different modes of propagation and reproduction of plant organisms, especially in Angiosperms.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course provides basic knowledge of plant biology, including the importance of plants in ecosystems and for different fields including biodiversity conservation .

The above notions are complementary to the course of Plant Physiology, besides other alternative courses based on botanical topics.

At the end of the course students will be able to:

- describe the features of plant cells (cell wall; plastids; vacuole; etc.)

- make a description and comparison of morphological and anatomical structures of different plant taxa, understanding the life processes of Spermatophyta

- illustrating the main reproduction processes of Spermatophyta and seed formation.

PREREQUISITES

Students are required to have a basic knowledge of cytology and developmental biology

Teaching methods

The teaching consists of lectures and exercises in the classroom, laboratory and field.

Lectures in the classroom will be delivered through a multimedia presentation.

Laboratory exercises include preparation of slides concerning plant histology and anatomy. The Lab activities will take place in equipped laboratories.

The exercises in the classroom and in the field will provide a direct observation of samples or plant specimens.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

The course will deal with the following topics:

- Importance of plants for humans and living beings. Affinities and differences between plants and animals.
- The plant cell. Cell size, shape and organization. Basic notions on chemical compounds and cell organelles.
- Cell wall: cytodieresis and origin of the cell wall. Cell wall growth, composition and function. Middle lamella, primary wall, and secondary wall. Apoplast and symplast (basic notions). Cell wall modifications and their functions (cutinization, lignification, suberification, mineralization, gelification, wax and gum deposition).
- Plastids: proplastids, chloroplasts and primary starch, etioplasts, leucoplasts and secondary starch (amylose and amylopectin), chromoplasts.
- Vacuole: origin, development, functions. Vacuolar content, features and functions of major vacuolar inclusions; importance of vacuolar inclusions in plant-animal relationships.
- Structural organization of plants: thallus and cormus, the conquest of terrestrial environments and adaptations.
- Cell growth by division and distension. Plant cell differentiation. Basic features of Arabidopsis thaliana as an experimental model for plant biology.
- Plant tissues: features, functions, and position. Primary and secondary meristemes; Continuative embriogeny and totipotency. Parenchimatic tissues, Tegument tissues, secretoy tissues, mechanical tissues, conducting tissues (xylem and phloem, cribro-vascular bundles, different types of stele).
- Vegetative organs of the cormus. The root and its functions; primary and secondary structure; branching. The stem and its functions; stem anatomy in Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons (primary and secondary structures; growth rings; sapwood and heartwood; homoxylous and heteroxylous wood); stem anatomy in Monocotyledons. The leaf and its functions; examples of Gymnosperm leaves; leaf anatomy in Angiosperms: dorsoventral and isolateral leaves. Leaf differentiation and adaptations.
- Elements of eukaryotic plant reproduction. Vegetative reproduction. Reproduction by sporogonia. Sexual reproduction and metagenetic cycles. Angiosperm flowers: morphology, function; evolution of floral parts. Impollination and fertilization. The seed and its reserves. The first steps of germination and the seedling.

Laboratory:

Techniques for the examination and analysis of plant material. Sample sectioning and staining for microscopy.
- Elements of plant cytology: cell wall, vcuoles, amyloplasts, chloroplasts.
- Morphological and anatomical observations of the cormus. The different types of roots; primary and secondary structure. The different types of stems; anatomy of the Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons (primary and secondary structure) and Monocotyledons. The different types of leaves; anatomy of Gymnosperm and Angiosperm leaves (dorsoventral and isolateral leaves).

Final trip for the observation of plants in their natural environment, either in the wilderness or in botanical gardens.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Main books
Speranza A. e Calzoni G. L. Struttura delle piante per immagini. Ed.Zanichelli, Bologna, 1996.
Pasqua G., Abbate G., Forni C. Botanica generale e diversità vegetale. Ed. Piccin, Padova, 2008.

Supplementary books
Pancaldi S. et al., Fondamenti di Botanica generale- Teoria e pratica. McGraw-Hill, 2011
Tripodi G. Introduzione alla Botanica sistematica EdiSES, 2006
Rost et al. Biologia delle piante, Zanichelli, 2008.

Atlas of plant anatomy
http://www.dipbot.unict.it/frame/botgenit.htm
http://www.atlantebotanica.unito.it/page.asp?xsl=tavoleAll

Supplementary materials
http://waynesword.palomar.edu/bot115.htm

 

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Anytime, fixed upon request by telephone and by e-mail (minuto@dipteris.unige.it)

Ricevimento: Fixed upon request by e-mail (cornara@dipteris.unige.it)

Exam Board

LAURA CORNARA (President)

LUIGI MINUTO (President)

MAURO MARIOTTI

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The teaching consists of lectures and exercises in the classroom, laboratory and field.

Lectures in the classroom will be delivered through a multimedia presentation.

Laboratory exercises include preparation of slides concerning plant histology and anatomy. The Lab activities will take place in equipped laboratories.

The exercises in the classroom and in the field will provide a direct observation of samples or plant specimens.

LESSONS START

The lessons of the first semester will start from September 23, 2019, and will be completed by January 17, 2020. The lessons of the second semester will start from February 17, 2020 and will end by June 12, 2020. Refer to the detailed timetable below link:

https://easyacademy.unige.it/portalestudenti/

ORARI

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile su EasyAcademy.

Vedi anche:

BOTANY WITH LABORATORY (1° MODULE)

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam includes a written test during the course related to general botany and one related to laboratory exercises. To access the laboratory test, attendance at laboratory exercises must be at least 75%. The final exam also includes the presentation of a small herbarium; the overall grade (80813) consists of the weighted average of the marks obtained in the various tests of the two modules. The partial grades are valid only for the summer session (June, July and September) of the current academic year.

Students who do not take or do not pass the tests in progress must take an oral exam on the complete course program (80813).

Students who hold or pass only one of the in itinere tests of general botany and systematic botany can retrieve the missing proof with a single attempt, within the appeals of June and July of the current academic year.

Assessment methods

Both for the theoretical part and for the laboratory, final tests are foreseen to ascertain the effective acquisition of basic knowledge of botany. Upon completion of the evaluation, the presentation of a small herbarium will be required, with discussion on the prepared samples.

Those who have not taken or passed the tests in itinere will have to take a classic oral exam, concerning all the topics covered during the frontal lessons and the Laboratories (Bot. Gen. + Bot. Sist. + Lab), including recognitions of an anatomical section and of plant samples.

The oral exam will aim to assess not only if the student has reached an adequate level of knowledge, but if he has acquired the ability to link structure and functions in plants.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
02/09/2020 09:30 GENOVA Orale

FURTHER INFORMATION

Attendance at the theoretical course strongly recommended and which will allow an adequate preparation to take the test in progress. To take the final written test of the Laboratory, an attendance of 75% at the laboratory activities  is necessary.