# INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE

OVERVIEW

The course explores the basic principles of solid materials explained at the microscopic level. It will introduce concepts about atomic order and arrangements, chemical bonding, atomic and electron dynamics in solids to understand the difference between metals, semiconductors, and insulators.

## AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course explores the basic principles of solid materials explained at the microscopic level. It will introduce concepts about atomic order and arrangements, chemical bonding, atomic and electron dynamics in solids to understand the difference between metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Solid state chemistry provides the most basic knowledge indispensable for the subjects about modern materials and their properties. The course will teach the students: (1) how to define the solid state and to connect its 3D structure with properties: elastic, electric, dielectric, magnetic; how to characterize solids, with the focus on X-rays and neutrons crystallography and inelastic scattering, with an overview of the emerging techniques; (2) how the knowledge about 3D structures in databases facilitates the understanding of structure-property relations; (3) how this knowledge is applied in the development of modern materials.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course explores the basic principles of solid materials explained at the microscopic level. It will introduce concepts about atomic order and arrangements, chemical bonding, atomic and electron dynamics in solids to understand the difference between metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Experiments will be performed to introduce important concepts as wavevector, frequency, interference, diffraction, photoemission, Hall effect.

PREREQUISITES

Basic knowledge in Quantum Mechanics

Teaching methods

Frontal lectures and laboratory demonstrations. The students will write reports on the experiments.

Exam: The students will be asked to expose a topic of their choice and will be asked by the examining commision to expose a different topic of the course.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Review of wave phenomena, plane waves, normal modes, Fourier analysis, wavepackets, Maxwell equations, Schrodinger equation and atomic orbitals.

Introduction to the periodic structure of solids, direct lattice, translational and point symmetries, Bravais lattices, lattice with a basis, Wigner-Seitz cell, types of chemical bonds, structure of elements and simple compounds. Interference and diffraction of waves, Laue and Bragg condition, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zones. Brief introduction on X-ray diffraction. Vibrational dynamics of solids, monoatomic and diatomic chains, acoustic and optical branches, quantization of vibrations and phonons, density of states, Einstein and Debye models, specific heat, brief analysis of anharmonicity to treat thermal expansion. Brief introduction on inelastic neutron scattering. Free electron models: classical Drude model, electrical conduction, Hall effect, thermal properties. Quantum statistics of identical particles, bosons and fermions, Sommerfeld model, Fermi sphere, Fermi energy and chemical potential, Sommerfeld expansion and correction to the Fermi energy. Failure of the classical description. Independent electron approximation in a periodic potential, Bloch theorem and band theory. Weak periodic potential and nearly free electron approximation, electronic structure and Fermi surface. Tight Binding approximation. Valence and conduction bands, electron velocity, electrical properties of full and partially filled bands, concept of holes. Metals, semiconductors, and insulators.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Lecture Notes for Solid State Physics, Steven Simon

“Solid State Physics: An Introduction to Principles of Material Science”, Harald Ibach, Hans Lueth, fourth Edition Springer Verlag

Eftherios Economou The Physics of Solid State: essentials and beyond Springer Verlag first chapter

## TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

**Ricevimento:** For explanations the students will be received on Thursday mornings in the office of the teacher

Exam Board

MARIO AGOSTINO ROCCA (President)

LUCA VATTUONE

SILVANA TERRENI

## LESSONS

Teaching methods

Frontal lectures and laboratory demonstrations. The students will write reports on the experiments.

Exam: The students will be asked to expose a topic of their choice and will be asked by the examining commision to expose a different topic of the course.

LESSONS START

Lectures will follow the academic calender of the Second Semester of the Laurea Magistrale in Scienza ed Ingegneria dei Materiali starting in the Middle of February and ending by the end of May.

## EXAMS

Exam description

The students will be examined orally. They will have to expose one topic of their own choice and another proposed by the exam committee. In order to reach the sufficiency (18/30) the student will have to show to master the topics at the basic level and to be able to expose them appropriately.

Assessment methods

The student will have handed in reports on the laboratory experiments. He/she will be asked to expose orally at the blackboard a topic of his/her choice. The exposition of a second topic will be asked by the jury. For both topics the student must show to master the basic knowledge and to be able to expose them appropriately

Exam schedule

Date | Time | Location | Type | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|

10/09/2020 | 15:00 | GENOVA | Orale |