BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

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iten
Code
25727
ACADEMIC YEAR
2019/2020
CREDITS
4 credits during the 3nd year of 8757 Chemistry and Chemical Technologies (L-27) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/10
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Chemistry and Chemical Technologies)
semester
1° Semester
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course takes into consideration the general principles of Biological Chemistry with particular reference to aspects related to cellular metabolism

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Provide students with a broad general understanding of the principles of biochemistry and molecular biology. At the same time the course offers examples of biochemical and technological applications in various fields.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Acquisition of basic knowledge on the structure and function of proteins with particular attention to those with enzymatic activity. Use of this knowledge for learning, at the molecular level, of the biochemistry of the main catabolic and anabolic processes. Participation in the training activity (lectures) will allow the student to acquire the knowledge necessary to understand the mechanisms related to cellular metabolism.

PREREQUISITES

In order to effectively address the contents of the course, the following basic knowledge is required: 1) general structures of biomolecules 2) general principles of organic chemistry

Teaching methods

 

Lectures and visits to the laboratory.

Lectures in the classroom are delivered through multimedia presentations.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Carbohydrates

Functional groups of organic compounds of biochemical interest. Definition and raw formula of carbohydrates. Identification of chiral centers and stereochemistry of sugars. Furanose and pyranose forms. Structure and formation of semiacetal bonds in hexoses and pentoses, with formation of new centers of asymmetry: alpha anomers and beta anomers. Structures of sugars: glucose, fructose, ribose. Formation of glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharide structure of biochemical interest (glycogen). Reducing and non-reducing ends of homopolysaccharides.

Nucleosides and nucleotides

structure of ATP, ADP and AMP. Ester links and pyrophosphoric bonds of ATP. Phosphodiester bonds.

Amino acids and proteins

General properties of a standard Amino Acid (AA). Chirality of amino acids. The 3 classes of the 20 Standard Amino Acids. Definition of Standard Amino Acid. Peptide bond formation and its geometric isomerism. Definition of polypeptide and protein. Primary structure of a protein. Terminal amino acids N and C of a polypeptide and / or a protein. Regular formulas of folding of a protein and details about the formation of hydrogen bonds: parallel and anti-parallel pleated helixes and sheets. EME . Binding properties with carbon monoxide and oxygen of myoglobin and hemoglobin and their structure. Role of pH and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

Coenzymes and Vitamins

Vitamins and Coenzymes. NAD and NADP pyridine coenzymes: oxide / reductive interconversions with hydride ion transfer mechanism.

METABOLISM

General concepts (anabolism and catabolism) Energy molecules (ATP and reduced coenzymes). Energy production strategies

GLUCOSE AND GLYCOLYSIS

Glucose transport. Transporters.

Glycolysis and enzymes scheme involved. Hexokinase and glucokinase.PFK1.Pyruvate kinase. Glycolysis regulation. Anareobic glycolysis. Alcoholic fermentation.

gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis substrates. Gluconeogenesis scheme. Regulation

Glycogen

Glycogen structure. Muscle and liver glycogen. Synthesis and demolition. Hormonal regulation (insulin and glucagon). Protein kinase and phosphatase.

VIA PENTOSO PHOSPHATES

Oxidative and non-oxidative phase. NADPH. Glutathione. Glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Control of the way of pentoses.  Decarboxylating dehydrogenase (malic enzyme)

KREBS CYCLE

Pyruvate oxidative decarboxylation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its regulation. Krebs cycle and its regulation. Energy Performance. Anaplerotic reactions.

LIPID

Triglyceride and fatty acid structure. Digestion and absorption. Lipase and its activation. Carnitine. Oxidation of saturated fatty acids, with an odd carbon number and monounsaturated. Energy balance. Adjustment. Chetonic bodies. Saturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Regulation. Lipoproteins.

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

Mitochondria. Reducing equivalents and their production. Respiratory chain. Respiratory complexes. Coenzyme Q and cytochromes. Redox potentials. Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory. ATP-asi and ATP production. Oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. Oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors. Shuttle systems for the transport of NADH cytosol / mitochondria. (glycerophosphate, malate-aspartate). Translocase.

 

NITROGEN METABOLISM

Amino acids and their degradation. Digestive enzymes. Transamination reactions. Transaminase action mechanism. Deamination of glutamate. Glutamine and glutamine synthetase. Muscle-liver alanine cycle (alanine –glucose). Urea cycle. Interaction of urea and Krebs cycles.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Principi di Biochimica - Garrett, Grisham - Editore: Piccin

I principi di biochimica di Lehninger - Nelson, Cox - Editore: Zanichelli

Biochimica - Stryer, Timoczcko, Berg - Editore: Zanichelli

Biochimica - Campbell, Farrell - Editore: EdiSES

Fondamenti di Biochimica - Voet, Voet, Pratt - Editore: Zanichelli

AulaWeb materials and slides

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: By appointment by email: Enrico.Millo@unige.it

Ricevimento: GIANLUCA DAMONTE:  By appointment by email: gianluca.damonte@unige.it

Exam Board

ENRICO MILLO (President)

GIANLUCA DAMONTE (President)

LESSONS

Teaching methods

 

Lectures and visits to the laboratory.

Lectures in the classroom are delivered through multimedia presentations.

LESSONS START

Lessons will start in October 2019 according to the timetable that will be announced later.

 For lessons start and timetable go to the following link:

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam consists of an oral test and is conducted by the two professors in charge of the course.The oral examination consists of the answer to questions asked by the teacher on topics covered during the course.

Assessment methods

Assessment of knowledge of: protein structure, enzymology, proteins that bind and transport oxygen, glucose, lipid and protein metabolism, structural formulas of the molecules involved in catabolic and anabolic processes.

This assessment will be verified by means of questions aimed at assessing whether the student has understood the topics of the course. Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of detail required for each topic will be provided at the beginning of the course and reiterated during lectures .The student must be able to integrate the knowledge acquired during the lectures The oral examination will focus mainly on the topics covered during the lectures and will have the purpose of assessing the achievement of the appropriate level of knowledge, the ability to use the theoretical notions. The ability to expose the arguments clearly and with correct terminology will also be evaluated.

 

 

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
16/07/2020 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame avrà luogo presso la sala riunioni del CEBR, piano -1 (uno fondi) della Clinica Oculistica, viale Benedetto XV, 9 - 16132 - Genova
17/09/2020 09:00 GENOVA Orale L'esame avrà luogo presso la sala riunioni del CEBR, piano -1 (uno fondi) della Clinica Oculistica, viale Benedetto XV, 9 - 16132 - Genova

FURTHER INFORMATION

Regular attendance at lectures is strongly recommended