CRITICAL THINKING AND ARGUMENTATION
The course aims to introduce to the critical exercise of thought, with a predominantly applicative orientation, practicing the analysis of forms of reasoning, cultural and conceptual assumptions, ways of justification, rhetorical and pragmatic dimensions. It will deal with forms of discourse belonging to every sphere: from common reasoning, in cognitive and moral perspective, public discussion, to more specific issues of the social sciences, up to complex forms of philosophical argumentation.
The course aims to promote the acquisition of reflection skills and argumentation tools concerning every kind of discourse, up to the philosophical level of conceptual analysis.
The theoretical part will be developed together with the operative part, which will concern both the critical approach to given discourses and the production of speechs and texts showing a good level of argumentative force. Given the practical orientation of the course, it is particularly recommended for those wishing to attend the classes.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
The course in particular has the following objectives: - To explore the main forms of discourse, in every sphere of knowledge, of social interaction, in the various uses of language in relation to the possible dimensions of truth - To examine "implicit" discourses, i.e. forms of persuasion that do not necessarily aim at the truth, but to induce behaviors – To examine the different ways in which explicit and implicit forms of discourse aim at persuasion and the construction of real or presumed justifications of their own truth claims – To identify and reconstruct the implicit assumptions in assertions and in common and scientific discourse – To examine and practice the forms of argumentation proper to philosophy, and their relation to the questions posed in scientific and common discourses – To let students acquire the ability to critically analyze data discourses in relation to argumentative procedures, identifying biases and fallacies in the individual and collective thought – To exercise the search for solutions to conceptual problems in a philosophical perspective
The course will present the notion of critical thought, its emergence and its cultural role, in relation to the most directly related philosophical problems, such as knowledge, truth, justification, and the contemporary cultural context, with the notions of public opinion, post-truth, relativism. It will introduce to the various forms of reasoning and the most common fallacies; to fundamental elements of argumentation and rhetoric theory.
An important part of the course will consist of exercises of critical analysis and of construction of argumentative discourses.
The texts for the exam will be subject to variations and additions. It is advisable to choose group 2 texts only after attending at least part of the lessons.
Attending students are supposed to read for the exam two texts (the text 1 and one text from group 2), the non attending students in addition also a text chosen between the two listed in n. 3.
1. F. Paoli, C. Crespellani Porcella, G. Sergioli, Ragionare nel quotidiano. Argomentare, valutare informazioni, prendere decisioni, Milano, Mimesis, 2012.
2. One book from the following:
- G. Jervis, Pensare dritto, pensare storto. Introduzione alle illusioni sociali, Torino, Bollati Boringhieri, 2007
- Franca D'Agostini, Verità avvelenata. Buoni e cattivi nel dibattito pubblico, Torino, Bollati Boringhieri, 2010
- Paola Cantù, E qui casca l'asino. Errori di ragionamento nel dibattito pubblico, Torino, Bollati Boringhieri, 2011
- F. F. Calemi, M. Paolini Paoletti, Cattive argomentazioni: come riconoscerle, Roma, Carocci, 2014
- T. Williamson, Io ho ragione e tu hai torto. Un dialogo filosofico, Bologna, il Mulino, 2016
- D. Marconi, Per la verità. Relativismo e filosofia, Torino, Einaudi, 2007
- G. Carofiglio, L’arte del dubbio, Palermo, Sellerio, 2009.
- Platone, Teeteto o Protagora
- R. Descartes, Meditazioni metafisiche
- I. Kant, Fondazione della metafisica dei costumi
- F. Nietzsche, Genealogia della morale
- Th. Nagel, Questioni mortali, Milano, il Saggiatore, 2015
For not attending studenti:
3. One book from the following:
- P. Cantù / I. Testa, Teorie dell’argomentazione. Un’introduzione alle logiche del dialogo, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2006
- R. B. Cialdini, Le armi della persuasione, Firenze, Giunti, 2017
Foreign students can agree with the teacher books in English or in other languages
Ricevimento: The office hours for students will be annouced when the schedule of the lessons will be established. For appointments please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Place: Room TA9 C.so Podestà 2
CLAUDIO LA ROCCA (President)
The course starts on Friday February 16