REASONING AND THEORY OF SCIENCE

REASONING AND THEORY OF SCIENCE

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iten
Code
98498
ACADEMIC YEAR
2018/2019
CREDITS
9 credits during the 1st year of 8455 Philosophy (L-5) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
M-FIL/02
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Philosophy)
semester
2° Semester
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The 1st module is an introduction to the fundamental concepts of logic. The general notion of inference, the distinction between deductive and non-deductive inferences, the basic concepts of propositional logic, the formalism of predicate logic will be presented at an introductory level.

The 2nd module is an introduction to the main problems of the philosophy of science, such as scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, scientific realism, scientific change and revolutions.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The aims of the course are to critically introduce the notion of reasoning and the basic principles of logic, as well as the specific philosophical methods and problems of scientific practice.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The aims of the 1st module are:
- to introduce the fundamentals of the study of reasoning, such as, for example, the distinction between deductive and non-deductive reasoning;
- to introduce the basic conceptual and terminological apparatus of logic; 
- to introduce the fundamentals of logical formalization;
- to introduce the basic concepts of propositional logic and the language of first order predicate logic.

The aims of the 2nd module are:
- introducing the basic conceptual and terminological apparatus of the philosophy of science;
- introducing the main epistemological problems raised by the philosophy of science;
- discussing the main theoretical positions developed with regard to the nature of science and its role in contemporary societies.

At the end of the 1st module, the students: 
- will know the technical vocabulary and the basic conceptual apparatus of logic and of the study of reasoning; 
- will know the distinction between different types of inference;
- will know the fundamentals of propositional logic;
- will know the language of first order predicate logic;
- will be able to formalize simple natural language sentences;
- will be able to analyze simple examples of common sense reasoning.

At the end of the 2nd module, the students: 
- will know the basic philosophical vocabulary of the philosophy of science;
- will be able to understand classical and contemporary texts of the philsoophy of science;
- will be able to apply the analytical and conceptual tools of the discipline to the discussion of basic problems regarding the various sciences.

PREREQUISITES

None, the course is introductory.

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons.

Students are required to register at Aulaweb, where materials useful for the course will be uploaded.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

The 1st module will introduce the following topics: Reasoning and inference; deductive and non-deductive arguments; logic as the study of deductive reasoning; propositional logic; first predicate logic: language and fundamentals; formalised and ordinary reasoning; systematic reasoning errors; pragmatics and reasoning.

The 2nd module will introduce the following basic problems of the philosophy of science: the difference between induction and deduction; the issue of demarcation; scientific explanation; scientific realism vs. anti-realism; the notions of progress, scientific change and revolutions. ​

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

1st module
D. Palladino, Manuale di logica, Carocci, introduction and chapters 1 to 4.
M. Frixione, Come ragioniamo, Laterza.

2nd module
S. Okasha, Il primo libro di Filosofia della scienza, Torino, Einaudi.
AA.VV.Filosofia della scienza, Milano, Raffaello Cortina, selected chapters (see aulaweb for further details).

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Thursday 2-4 p.m. DAFIST, Philosophy section, Via Balbi 4, 2nd floor

Ricevimento: Wednesday and Thursday, presidenza Scuola Scienze Umanistiche, via Balbi 2, 2nd floor

Exam Board

MICHELE MARSONET (President)

MARCELLO FRIXIONE (President)

MASSIMILIANO VIGNOLO

DAVIDE SERPICO

FILIPPO DOMANESCHI

MARIA CRISTINA AMORETTI

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons.

Students are required to register at Aulaweb, where materials useful for the course will be uploaded.

LESSONS START

February 13th, 2019

EXAMS

Exam description

Oral exam concerning the content of the lessons and texts in the bibliography.

Enrollment is mandatory and must be done at least one week before the examination.

Assessment methods

1st module
The oral exam evaluates (also through the execution of simple exercises) the student's ability to know and apply the fundamental concepts of the discipline.

2nd module
The oral exam evaluates the student's ability to know the basic philosophical vocabulary of the philosophy of science; to understand classical and contemporary texts of the philsoophy of science; and to apply the analytical and conceptual tools of the discipline to the discussion of basic problems regarding the various sciences. 

FURTHER INFORMATION

Those who cannot attend classes are required to get in touch with the teachers.