# LABORATORY 1 (B)

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iten
Code
66571
2018/2019
CREDITS
10 credits during the 1st year of 8758 PHYSICS (L-30) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
FIS/01
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (PHYSICS)
semester
Annual
modules
This unit is a module of:
Teaching materials

## AIMS AND CONTENT

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

To introduce you to the laboratory practice, we will deal with conceptual and methodical aspects together with topics more specifically related to laboratory experiments (with particularf emphasis on mechanical measurements). The topics of this second module of the Laboratory course are essentially four: Dimensional analysis Measurement method and processing of collected data Probability calculation Probabilistic distributions and introduction to Statistics

The expected Learning Outcomes are 1) demonstrate ability to independently apply the knowledge in a laboratory context where the student will perform simple physics experiences 2) demonstrate the ability to report the results obtained in laboratory experiments correctly and quantitatively by drafting reports that are evaluated by the teachers during the year and in the final exam. 3) demonstrate the ability to use the knowledge learned to solve simple problems and exercises related to the theory part of the course.

Teaching methods

The course includes classroom lectures (60 hours) in which the theoretical elements necessary to perform practical laboratory experiments will be illustrated (Dimensional Analysis, Measurement Method and Data Processing, Probability Calculation, Probabilistic Distributions and Introduction to Statistics, Introduction to experiments). In addition, exercises will be carried out in the classroom to support the theoretical part.

There are also 11 laboratory shifts for a total of 60 hours to be held in the afternoon in groups of 2-3 people. The last laboratory test will be carried out individually and will contribute to the definition on of the final grade. The frequency of the afternoon laboratory shifts is compulsory.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

1. Physical quantities, operational definition and outline of the measurement methodology. Physical dimensions and dimensional analysis. Systems of units of measurement and description of the International System. Conversion between different units of measurement systems. General characteristics of the measuring instruments (sensitivity, flow, threshold, readiness ...). 2. Non-reproducible measurements. Data representstion through histograms of absolute or relative frequencies. Average value and its determination. Mode and median. Full width at half maximumt, variance and standard deviation. Variance of the mean and standard error. Rectangular distribution. Gaussian distribution. Propagation of errors ("maximum errors" and statistics). Covariance (outline). Systematic errors. 3. Graphical representation of data, even with the use of non-linear ranges. Estimated graphic of the "best fit line". The least squares method. The weighted average. 4. Introduction to laboratory experiments. 5. Definition of probability. Overview of combinatorial calculation. Assiomatization of the probability calculation. Venn Diagrams. Conditional and compound probability. Independent and disjoint events. 6. Random variables. Distribution function. Cumulative distribution function. Mode, median, average, variance. Joint probability. Sum and product of random variables. Covariance and correlation coefficient. 7. Probability distributions. Binomial distribution. Poisson distribution or rare events. Normal distribution. The Chi ^ 2 test for probability distributions.

Pdf copies of the handouts will be provided on the online Aulaweb platform during the year

Taylor John R. "Introduction to the analysis of errors The study of uncertainties in physical measurements" Publisher Zanichelli

For further information

Athanasios Papoulis "Probability, random variables and stochastic processes" Publisher Borighieri

## TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento:   The teacher can be reached at any moment, reception by appointment either by phone or by email. Francesco Buatier de Mongeot Department of Physics, via Dodecanese 33, 16146 Genoa floor 7, study 705 telephone: 010 3536324  email: buatier@fisica.unige.it

Exam Board

FRANCESCO BUATIER DE MONGEOT (President)

SERGIO DI DOMIZIO (President)

LUCA VATTUONE

GIULIA ROSSI

ENRICO ROBUTTI

FLAVIO FONTANELLI

ROBERTA CARDINALE

LEA DI NOTO

MARIA CATERINA GIORDANO

## LESSONS

Teaching methods

The course includes classroom lectures (60 hours) in which the theoretical elements necessary to perform practical laboratory experiments will be illustrated (Dimensional Analysis, Measurement Method and Data Processing, Probability Calculation, Probabilistic Distributions and Introduction to Statistics, Introduction to experiments). In addition, exercises will be carried out in the classroom to support the theoretical part.

There are also 11 laboratory shifts for a total of 60 hours to be held in the afternoon in groups of 2-3 people. The last laboratory test will be carried out individually and will contribute to the definition on of the final grade. The frequency of the afternoon laboratory shifts is compulsory.

## EXAMS

Exam description

The final evaluation covers the entire annual course of Laboratorio 1 and allows to judge, globally, for the two modules of which the course is constituted, the preparation of the student and the degree of achievement of the pre-established objectives.

The final grade consists of a weighted average between the evaluation of the A module (3 credits) of the B module (10 credits) . The latter is verified in a written test and in a practical laboratory test carried out individually (5 credits each).

The oral exam is not foreseen, but it can be requested by the teachers in cases of doubts on the actual achievement of the pre-established results by the student.

Assessment methods

1) A written test is foreseen to evaluate the comprehension of the topics dealt with during the theoretical frontal lessons.

2) A practical test will be carried out individually, which aims to evaluate the learning of the concepts related to the measurement and processing of laboratory data. At the practice test a bonus is added (up to 10% of the final grade) to which the practical tests carried out during the year contribute.

The final grade of Laboratory 1B module results from the weighted average of the 2 tests.