BOTANY APPLIED TO CULTURAL HERITAGE

BOTANY APPLIED TO CULTURAL HERITAGE

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Code
80522
ACADEMIC YEAR
2018/2019
CREDITS
6 credits during the 2nd year of 8453 Conservation of Cultural Heritage (L-1) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/03
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Conservation of Cultural Heritage)
semester
2° Semester
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

The course gives an overview of relations between Botany and Cultural assets and highlights the importance for the study of biodeterioration, of plant materials and plants cultivated in historical Italian and Genoese gardens and plants depicted in art works for the interpretation of the work. The course also teaches elements of general Biology, Ecology and General and Systematic Botany useful for the learning of specific parts of the course. 

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The objective is to supply indications for recognising plant material of a historical-artistic and archaeological interest; for the analysis of plant iconography; for the dating and study of wooden finds on a dendrochronological basis; for the study of biological deterioration of cultural assets. 

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims to give an overview of all the relations that Botany, in its various aspects, has with Cultural assets whether they are artistic, archaeological or have to do with archives, highlighting the importance that the application of botany disciplines to Cultural assets has from the point of view of biodeterioration and the prevention of biodeterioration. From the point of view of recognition of plant materials used; for the recognition of plants cultivated in historical Italian and Genoese gardens in particular (with particular reference to the introduction of plants from other continents) and for the recognition of plants depicted in works of art and for the contributions that these can give to the interpretation of the work of art itself. The course also presents elements of general Biology, Ecology, General and Systematic Botany which are useful for learning in the more specific parts of the course. 

Teaching methods

Lectures and some laboratory and in the field practical work.

The course is usually supplemented by a seminar in which graduates and final year students and doctoral researchers and candidates present their experience in the field of application of Botany to cultural assets.

In order to facilitate learning during the course there will be anonymous tests that students can use to self-evaluate and to assess their learning progress.

EXAMS

Oral exam with questions on the different topics of the programme and analysis of the description of images in order ascertain the adequacy of candidates’ preparation.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Programme for students that take the course for 6 cfu

 

Definition of material and examination of main fields of application of Botany to Cultural assets. Elements of plant Biology: cell organisation, chemical composition of cells, cell metabolism, classification of living organisms on the basis of trophic typologies. Main differences between the animal and the plant cell. Elements of systematic Botany. Fundamental characteristics of the main groups of plants. Structural, functional and ecological characteristics of the main biological agents of deterioration: prokaryotes; algae; fungi; lichens; land plants or embryophytes (bryophytes. ferns. gymnosperms, angiosperms) - fundamental characteristics of plant anatomy and reproductive systems of the various groups especially in relation to the determination, recognition and evaluation of potential biological agents of deterioration. Main characteristics useful for recognition of angiosperm plants. Elements of ecology.

Biodeterioration of cultural assets; General mechanisms of Biodeterioration processes. Phenomenology of Biodeterioration. Ecology of Biodeterioration; ecological factors and their connections with Biodeterioration; plant and microbial communities: functional and dynamic aspects. Limiting factors: Water, Light, Temperature. Nutrients. Polluting agents, climatic factors (Microclimate, Macroclimate); Ecological sequences in Biodeterioration. Structural, ecological and functional characteristics of the main biological agents of deterioration.

Danger index of tracheophytes for the evaluation of Biodeterioration of Architectural and Archaeological Goods.

Biodeterioration processes in relation to the material of cultural assets (organic, inorganic and composite material). Problems of Biodeterioration in relation to types of environment (confined, external or semi confined environments, etc.). Problems of Biodeterioration in relation to geographical and climatic contexts.

Conservation of cultural assets; prevention of Biodeterioration; guidelines for preventive conservation. Control of Biodeterioration and biorecovery, physical methods to control Biodeterioration, chemical methods, biological methods.

Knowledge and enhancement of cultural and environmental goods. Recognition of plant material of archaeological and historical-artistic interest. Wood: morphological and anatomical characteristics useful for the recognition of wood used in artefacts; annual rings, homoxylous and heteroxylous wood. Commonly used wood. Dendrochronology for dating and studying wood exhibits.

Historical Gardens - Knowledge and conservation of parks and historical gardens, Botanical Gardens and Naturalistic Museums. Historical outline. Ancient gardens: Egyptian, Babylon, Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman Gardens. Medieval Gardens: monastic and courtly gardens, Islamic gardens, (hortus conclusus).

Renaissance and 18th century gardens: Italian formal gardens, Mannerist and Baroque gardens, French gardens, Romantic or English gardens, 19th century gardens and contemporary gardens. Commonly cultivated plants in Renaissance gardens (border plants, flowering plants, ornamental arboreal plants and fruit plants, plants in the Giardino dei Semplici and the secret garden).

Plants in works of art and problems related to their recognition. Phytoiconology for recognition and interpretation of artistic depictions.

Analysis of plant iconography in archaeology and art; the contribution of botany to the recognition of plant species in paintings and sculptures of archaeological and historical-artistic interest and for the interpretation of the meaning of the depiction itself. Methodologies, case-studies. Methodologies used to recognise plants in artistic depictions. Scientific botanical iconography

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Exam Board

MARIA ANGELA GUIDO (President)

VALENTINA PESCINI

CARLO ALESSANDRO MONTANARI

RAFFAELLA BRUZZONE

LESSONS

Teaching methods

Lectures and some laboratory and in the field practical work.

The course is usually supplemented by a seminar in which graduates and final year students and doctoral researchers and candidates present their experience in the field of application of Botany to cultural assets.

In order to facilitate learning during the course there will be anonymous tests that students can use to self-evaluate and to assess their learning progress.

EXAMS

Oral exam with questions on the different topics of the programme and analysis of the description of images in order ascertain the adequacy of candidates’ preparation.

ORARI

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile su EasyAcademy.

Vedi anche:

BOTANY APPLIED TO CULTURAL HERITAGE

EXAMS

Assessment methods

The exam will be oral with questions on different topics in order to assess the adequacy of candidates’ preparation.

The exam aims to assess knowledge of the subject and the different applications of botany to cultural assets both for biodeterioration and conservation and enhancement of cultural assets. It will also seek to assess learning of elements of plant ecology and systematic botany that are useful for applying the subject to cultural assets.

Students are deemed to have reached a “minimum/sufficient” level of learning when they demonstrate that they have assimilated basic concepts of various topics developed during the course and in the programme.

Students are deemed to have reached an “excellent” level of learning when they demonstrate critical and in-depth knowledge of the different applications of botany to cultural assets. 

FURTHER INFORMATION

In order to facilitate learning during the course there will be anonymous tests that students can use to self-evaluate and to assess their learning progress.