# MATTER PHYSICS 2

**PHYSICS 9012 (coorte 2018/2019)**- METODI DI SIMULAZIONE APPLICATI ALLA FISICA 72567
- MATERIALS AND DEVICES FOR ELECTRONICS 62421
- MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS AND NANOSTRUCTURES 66800
- LAB OF BIOPHYSICS 62739
- NANOSTRUCTURES 62744
- SOLID STATE PHYSICS 61861
- MATTER PHYSICS LABORATORY 61862
- SOFT MATTER PHYSICS 61863
- LAB OF FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS 61868
- THEORY OF NUCLEAR FORCES (6 CFU) 61870
- APPLIED NUCLEAR PHYSICS 61871
- ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS 2 (6 CFU) 62422
- PHYSICS AND MEDICAL STATISTICS 67074
- PHYSICS OF THE OCEAN 68875
- PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 61872
- PHYSICS OF ASTROPARTICLES 61873
- FOUNDATIONS OF ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY 61874
- GENERAL RELATIVITY (6 CFU) 61875
- FIELDS THEORY 61876
- LAB OF ANDVANCED THERMODYNAMICS 62424
- GROUP THEORY 63662
- STATISTICAL PHYSICS 61867
- APPLIED ELECTRONICS 68873

OVERVIEW

This Master Course focuses on electronic properties in crystals. The main idea is to give the basis in order to understand the electronic quantum theory of solids.

## AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The main learning outcome of the present course is to understand several properties of electrons in solids.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The main learning outcome of the present course is to understand several properties of electrons in solids like their dynamics, their magnetic properties, the superconducting behaviour and the principle of laser.

Teaching methods

The course is at the blackboard with also the possibility to see slides especially connected to the possible experiments.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

- Crystal structures- Bravais lattice and reciprocal lattice- Electronic bands in crystals: Bloch theorem and almost free electrons. Band occupation: metals and insulators. Examples in three, two and one dimension. Dynamical and transport properties: semiclassical motion, effective mass, response to extrenal fiels. Scattering processes and electrical conductivity in metals - Semiconductors: electrons and holes, homogeneous semiconductors, carrier statistics in thermal equilibrium. Intrinsic ans extrinsic semiconductors, action mass law, statistic of impurity levels in thermal equilibrium. Transport properties: drift and diffusive current, recombination adn generation processes - Non-homogeneous semiconductors pn junction at equilibrium and polarized - Magnetism: Hamiltonian in a magnetic field, statistical definition of magnetization. Diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties, Curie law - Ferromagnetism: Weiss model, exchange interaction, Heisenberg Hamiltonian, mean filed approach - Superconductivity: fenomenological aspects, London equation, Cooper pairs and introduction to BCS - Introduction to Laser: Einstein coefficient, spectral lines, population inversion and pumping, resonant cavities. Examples: rubin laser, gas laser semiconductor laser.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

*G. Grosso and G. Pastori-Parravicini "Solid State Physics", Academic Press (2000).

* C. Kittel "Introduzione alla Fisica dello Stato Solido", Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (2008). *

* O. Svelto "Principles of Lasers" Fourth Edition, Springer (1998).

## TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Exam Board

MAURA SASSETTI (President)

RICCARDO FERRANDO

FABIO CAVALIERE

## LESSONS

Teaching methods

The course is at the blackboard with also the possibility to see slides especially connected to the possible experiments.

## EXAMS

Exam description

Written and oral exam will be present.

Assessment methods

During the period of lectures there are guided excercises in order to verify the status of knowledge of the students. The written exam presents three problems each with several questions related to the programme. The difficulty of the questions is graduated in order to verify the status of the preparation of the students.

The oral part is done by the teacher responsible of the course and another expert in the field, usually a teacher of the staff. The duration of the oral proof is about 30 minutes.

The final mark correspond to an average between the written and oral exams.