BIOLOGY APPLIED TO DIAGNOSTIC AND PRESERVATION OF CULT. HERIY. MOD. 3

BIOLOGY APPLIED TO DIAGNOSTIC AND PRESERVATION OF CULT. HERIY. MOD. 3

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iten
Code
62168
ACADEMIC YEAR
2018/2019
CREDITS
3 credits during the 1st year of 9009 Techniques for Conservation and Restoration of cultural heritages (LM-11) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
AGR/06
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Techniques for Conservation and Restoration of cultural heritages)
semester
2° Semester
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW


The Module III - Botany consists of lectures and exercises that illustrate the main categories of plants that concern the conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage: Cyanobacteria, Mushrooms, Algae, Lichens, Briophytes, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes. The principles of plant ecology and the aspects of biodeterioration caused by plants are illustrated. Particular importance is given to the possibility of identifying wood on the basis of its anatomy.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The aim of module 3-Botany module is to provide basic knowledge of systematics and plant ecology related to the main groups of plant organisms involved as biodeteriogens or to other aspects of the management and conservation of Cultural Heritage. The bases of the wood  anatomy and of the main characteristics useful for identifying the species most commonly used in artistic and archaeological artefacts are also provided.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES


The Module III - Botany aims to provide students who come from different educational backgrounds with a basic knowledge about the importance of plants towards cultural heritage, which they can be also part of (eg in parks, historic gardens, artistic and archaeological materials). For this purpose, the main groups of plants are illustrated (Cyanobacteria, Fungi, Algae, Lichens, Briophytes, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes) and the role that each one can play both in the biodeterioration of cultural heritage and as materials. The most important materials such as paper, wood, textiles, stone materials and composite materials are taken into consideration. The main objective is to enable the students to identify the origin of conservation problems and to suggest possible intervention actions, possibly involving specialists for different categories of micro- and macroscopic plants in order to allow the identification of different species, which can damage cultural Heritage or are used as material constituting objects of artistic and archaeological interest. In order to allow the identification of different woods, the anatomical characteristics of the wood are illustrated with particular detail.

The frequency of lectures and exercises should enable students to orient themselves in the field of diagnosis of damage to cultural heritage caused by vegetal organisms, identify their causes in terms of type of organisms and suggest contrast actions based on knowledge of plant ecology.

With regard to wood products, apart from the main aspects related to biodeterioration, students will need to know the methodologies (even simple) and the anatomical characters on the basis of which the safe identification of different types of wood of the most common European species is possible.

Teaching methods

The Module III - Botany (3 ECTS) includes lectures (~ 2.5 ECTS) and laboratory exercises (~ 0.5 ECTS), including samples taken at appropriate sites (eg historical buildings, monumental cemeteries, decorated plasters , etc.). During the lessons, the teacher makes use of PowerPoint presentations that are progressively uploaded to the appropriate Aulaweb site and represent useful reference material for those who miss some lessons and prepare for the exam. Simple experiments in sampling and analysis of micro- and macroscopic biodeteriogens are proposed in the exercises, in particular, students prepare, stain and observe with the aid of an optical microscope,  samples taken together with the teacher and are led to the identification of the organisms observed. In the case of Spermatophytes observed on the ground, the teacher identifies them by explaining their morphological and ecological characteristics, for ex. regarding the potential danger that they can represent in relation to historical-artistic artifacts.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Taxonomic, functional and ecological characteristics of the main vegetal biodeteriogens: Cyanobacteria, Algae, Mushrooms, Lichens, Briophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms. Phenomenology and analysis of biological deterioration processes of cultural heritage. Ecology of biodeterioration. Index of potential dangers of the Tracheophytes for the evaluation of the biodeterioration of architectural and archaeological assets. Biodeterioration processes in relation to the materials of cultural heritage, the typology of environments, geographical and climatic contexts. Conservation of cultural heritage. Physical, chemical and biological methods for the control and prevention of biodeterioration from plants. Wood as a material of archaeological and historical-artistic interest: morphological and anatomical features useful for the identification of the most common woods used for artefacts of artistic and archaeological interest in Europe.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

The texts indicated below are specifically dedicated to students of cultural heritage conservation courses; therefore they represent a valid help to face the program foreseen by the discipline. However, they also include many subjects outside the latter and must therefore be regarded as general reference works.

Caneva G., Nugari M. P., Salvadori O., 2005 - La biologia vegetale per i beni culturali   [volume I] Biodeterioramento e conservazione. Nardini Editore

Caneva G., Nugari M. P., Salvadori O., 2002 - la Biologia nel Restauro. Nardini Editore

Caneva G., Nugari M. P., Salvadori O., 2005 - La biologia vegetale per i beni culturali   [volume II] Conoscenza e Valorizzazione. Nardini Editore.

Nardi Berti R., 2006 - La struttura anatomica del legno. CNR – Ivalsa.

 

        Scientific publications are used during the lessons to illustrate case studies and research updates.

         In addition, PowerPoint presentations used for lessons and uploaded to the Aulaweb site dedicated to the discipline are additional help

         for learning and as a guide in following a logical sequence of topics, often preparatory to one another.

 

 

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Students are invited by appointment, to be agreed with the teacher via email contact (carlo.montanari@unige.it)

Exam Board

LUIGI VEZZULLI (President)

CARLO ALESSANDRO MONTANARI (President)

GIORGIO BAVESTRELLO (President)

CARLA PRUZZO

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The Module III - Botany (3 ECTS) includes lectures (~ 2.5 ECTS) and laboratory exercises (~ 0.5 ECTS), including samples taken at appropriate sites (eg historical buildings, monumental cemeteries, decorated plasters , etc.). During the lessons, the teacher makes use of PowerPoint presentations that are progressively uploaded to the appropriate Aulaweb site and represent useful reference material for those who miss some lessons and prepare for the exam. Simple experiments in sampling and analysis of micro- and macroscopic biodeteriogens are proposed in the exercises, in particular, students prepare, stain and observe with the aid of an optical microscope,  samples taken together with the teacher and are led to the identification of the organisms observed. In the case of Spermatophytes observed on the ground, the teacher identifies them by explaining their morphological and ecological characteristics, for ex. regarding the potential danger that they can represent in relation to historical-artistic artifacts.

LESSONS START

The lessons take place in the second semester, starting from March at reduced hours, in parallel with those of the other modules, and then full-time at the end of these.

For lessons start and timetable go to the following link: http://www.distav.unige.it/ccsbenicultura/orario-lezioni

EXAMS

Exam description

The exam is oral and  consists of an interview between the student and the judging commission. The vote is given in thirtieths and, together  with that of the other two modules, it determines the overall unique grade of the whole teaching.

Assessment methods

During the interview that constitutes the oral exam of the module, the commission verifies the achievement of the educational objectives of the teaching by asking different questions related to the program actually carried out during the course. In particular, the aim is to verify not only the acquisition of specific notions of the subjects dealt with, but also the ability to link the various topics and the transversal aspects that are continuously underlined in lectures and exercises. In fact, diagnostic capacity requires not only the application of instrumental knowledge or analysis, but above all the ability to assess the context and the correlations between this and the organisms under analysis.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Participation in lectures and exercises is strongly recommended, especially considering the fact that very often the curriculum of students who take up this master's degree does not include topics of biology, plant systematics and ecology.

  In case of difficulty in learning or forced absence from lessons, students can avail themselves of tutors in the person of older students who have been recruited and trained to this task .