PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY

PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY

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iten
Code
80317
ACADEMIC YEAR
2018/2019
CREDITS
8 credits during the 2nd year of 8452 Pharmacy (LM-13) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/15
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Pharmacy)
semester
1° Semester
Prerequisites
Teaching materials

OVERVIEW

Aim of the course is to provide basic information for the knowledge and identification of the main botanical sources of plant drugs used in pharmacy and the understanding of the monographs relating to medicinal plants found in the various pharmacopoeias.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course provide concepts of general botany (histology, organography, reproduction, notes about taxonomy) necessary for the understanding of drug descriptions found in the various pharmacopoeias. The main plant taxa of pharmaceutical interest are then described with a systematic approach.

Teaching methods

The course consists of lectures, which explains the different subjects on the basis of illustrated educational materials (slides) that is entirely provided to the students at the beginning of the course, through aulaweb. Students are invited to download the material from the beginning of the course, in order have a track on which to insert notes, comments etc. 

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

a. Characterization and description of plant species: definition of medicinal plant and Pharmaceutical Botany. Scientific nomenclature. Traditional and Virtual Herbarium.

b. Systematics, taxonomy, species identification: A brief history of systematics (classification based on the usefulness and artificial, natural, phylogenetic classifications). Concept of species and hybrid. Definitions of classification, systematic and taxonomy. Identification or recognition of a species: the analytical keys.

c. Histology: meristems and definitive tissue (dermal, ground, mechanical, conducting and secretory tissues).

d. Organography: thallophytes and cormophytes. Structure of the corm: root (primary and secondary structure); stem (primary and secondary structure); leaf; flower and inflorescence; fruit.

e. Reproduction: Notes on reproduction (asexual and sexual) and metagenetic cycles in plants. Examples of cycles in algae, mushrooms, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.

f. The taxa of medicinal interest

- Algae: general information and main taxa of medicinal interest.

- Fungi: General information and main taxa of medicinal interest.

- Lichens: General information and main taxa of medicinal interest.

- Ppteridophytes: General information and main taxa of medicinal interest.

- Gymnosperms: General information. Main taxa of medicinal interest of the following families: Ginkgoaceae, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, Ephedraceae.

-Angiosperms 1. Magnoliopsida o Dicotyledones. General information. Main taxa of medicinal interest of the following families: Fagaceae, Betulaceae, Salicaceae, Juglandaceae, Moraceae, Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, Santalaceae, Viscaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae Hamamelidaceae, Myristicaceae, Illiciaceae, Monimiaceae, Lauraceae, Menispermaceae, Ranunculaceae, Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae, Brassicaceae, Caricaceae, Theaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Lythraceae, Punicaceae, Araliaceae, Apiaceae, Tiliaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, Linaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Rutaceae, Burseraceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Hippocastanaceae, Celastraceae, Aquifoliaceae, Rhamnaceae, Vitaceae, Piperaceae, Ericaceae, Primulaceae, Sapotaceae, Styracaceae, Oleaceae, Loganiaceae, Gentianaceae, Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Pedaliaceae, Plantaginaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Valerianaceae, Campanulaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae.

-Angiosperms 2. Liliopsida o Monocotyledones. General information. Main taxa of medicinal interest of the following families: Alliaceae, Asparagaceae, Colchicaceae, Liliaceae, Convallariaceae, Asphodelaceae, Ruscaceae, Iridaceae, Agavaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Bromeliaceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae Zingiberaceae, Orchidaceae.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Maugini E., Maleci Bini L., Mariotti Lippi M. 2006. Manuale di Botanica Farmaceutica. Padova: Piccin.

Speranza A., Calzoni G.L. 2001. Struttura delle piante in immagini. Bologna: Zanichelli.

Bruni A., Nicoletti M. 2003. Dizionario Ragionato di Erboristeria e Fitoterapia. Padova: Piccin.

Senatore F. 2012. Biologia e Botanica Farmaceutica. Padova: Piccin.

Pignatti S. 2002. Flora d’Italia Bologna: Edagricole.

Gastaldo P. 1987. Compendio della Flora Officinale Italiana. Padova: Piccin.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: Any day, in the opening hours of the Department, prior appointment by e-mail (bisio@difar.unige.it) 

Exam Board

ANGELA BISIO (President)

PAOLO GIORDANI

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The course consists of lectures, which explains the different subjects on the basis of illustrated educational materials (slides) that is entirely provided to the students at the beginning of the course, through aulaweb. Students are invited to download the material from the beginning of the course, in order have a track on which to insert notes, comments etc. 

EXAMS

Exam description

The examination starts with a written test consisting of six open-ended questions, score 5 points each; the exam consists of six questions divided as follows:

1- Systematic - It consists of an open question, which concerns a systematic grouping. Part of the program involved: the whole part from algae to the monocots including. The question is about a systematic grouping and must be met with the characteristics of the same botanical and plant examples of pharmaceutical use (Latin name, drug, constituents characterizing the drug use in therapy). A satisfactory response to the first question is essential for continuing examination (=If you cannot answer this question we do not continue the exam, even if the answers to the other questions are enough). Length of the answer: 5 to about ten lines, in a schematic and comprehensive way.

2- Histology - One the images of the chapter histology is proposed: the answer must comprise the list of everything that is present in the image, with arrows drawn on the figure that clearly indicate the location of the things that are identified, as shown during the class.

3- Organography - root or stem or leaf. One the images of the chapter Organography is proposed, and more specifically an image of the root or stem or leaf: the answer must comprise the list of everything that is present in the image, with arrows drawn on the figure that clearly indicate the location of the things that are identified, as shown during the class.

6. Reproduction - It is an open question about chapter of reproduction in general or about one of the parts related to reproduction that are present at the beginning of the systematic discussion of each taxon in the part relating to the species of pharmaceutical interest. Length of the answer: 5 to about ten lines, in a schematic and comprehensive way.

Available time: one hour.

The score of each response will be calculated according to the following breakdown: 1) Learning: 3 points; 2) communication skills: 1.5 points; 3) judgment: 1.5 points. The result obtained in the written test is then discussed with the student and the examination may continue orally.

The examination is passed only if a score ≥18 was achieved.

The possibility of subsequent examination dates is given only in very exceptional cases and this possibility will be discussed with the commission in the exam calendar official date anyway.

Assessment methods

The exam questions are conceived so that the student can provide schematic answers, framing  each issue in its essential points.

With regard to the systematic part, the expected response is short and must focus the plant source, the bioactive constituents and the use in the therapy of the required taxon. The questions of histology and organography are designed for training both to macroscopic and microscopic identification of a pharmaceutical plant drug: the proposed picture is one of those discussed during the lectures, and a concise description of all its parts is required. The question on reproduction requires a concise answer on the main modes of plant reproduction, closely related to the characteristics of the different taxa.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
20/01/2020 09:00 GENOVA Scritto + Orale Gli studenti dovranno presentarsi all’appello muniti di un valido documento d’identità e, al fine di dimostrare l’avvenuto rispetto delle propedeuticità richieste, dovranno esibire un’autocertificazione degli esami sostenuti, acquisibile in formato .pdf dal sito web di Ateneo, nella sezione “Servizi online agli studenti”, alla voce Anagrafica, Carriera, Tasse e Benefici – La tua carriera." Luogo dell'esame: Polo Sturla - Aula C Gli studenti che durante la prova d'esame verranno trovati in possesso di materiale informatico e/o cartaceo non ammesso verranno immediatamente esclusi dalla prova e segnalati al Presidente del Consiglio Corso di Studi. Trattandosi di corsi integrati, entrambe le prove vanno sostenute e superate lo stesso giorno. Nessun voto può essere mantenuto per le sessioni successive.
14/02/2020 09:00 GENOVA Scritto + Orale Gli studenti dovranno presentarsi all’appello muniti di un valido documento d’identità e, al fine di dimostrare l’avvenuto rispetto delle propedeuticità richieste, dovranno esibire un’autocertificazione degli esami sostenuti, acquisibile in formato .pdf dal sito web di Ateneo, nella sezione “Servizi online agli studenti”, alla voce Anagrafica, Carriera, Tasse e Benefici – La tua carriera." Luogo dell'esame: Polo Sturla - Aula C Gli studenti che durante la prova d'esame verranno trovati in possesso di materiale informatico e/o cartaceo non ammesso verranno immediatamente esclusi dalla prova e segnalati al Presidente del Consiglio Corso di Studi. Trattandosi di corsi integrati, entrambe le prove vanno sostenute e superate lo stesso giorno. Nessun voto può essere mantenuto per le sessioni successive.