# PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1 WITH LABORATORY

OVERVIEW

The teaching of Physical Chemistry 1 with Laboratory is centered on the concept of energy and accompanies the student, through modeling, to the study of thermodynamic equilibrium.

In addition to the disciplinary content, the module is built to implement the students' soft skills, inviting them to continuous reflection, to the classroom discussion, to peer evaluation and to increase the ability to work in groups.

## AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims to provide basic chemical-physical knowledge useful for interpreting and predicting the behavior, in thermodynamic terms, of systems of chemical interest, including reaction environments.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The students are able to describe the four laws of thermodynamics, giving some examples; they show the ability to predict, address and understand the behavior of chemical systems, in thermodynamic terms, knowing how to solve numerical exercises of medium difficulty, attributable to the knowledge of the theoretical part. They are able to carry out, in groups, simple laboratory experiences, showing the attitude to deepening, and have the competence to draw up a relationship in a collaborative way, developing their own critical sense, the ability to compare and evaluate.

PREREQUISITES

Basic knowledge of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

Teaching methods

The lecture is divided into: a) presentation of each topic with the support of the slides prepared by the teacher; b) phase of reflection with stimulus questions to understand the degree of learning; c) group work for collaborative exercises. The traditional use of the blackboard is complemented by participative teaching methods such as cooperative learning, peer-evaluation, concept maps, video clips, microteaching, etc.

Laboratory experiences include: group work during the experience, a brief study and a written report. At the end of the course, the students, divided into groups of interest, present in public a chosen topic, coherent with the program.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

*Theoretical module*

Generality and thermodynamic nomenclature

The properties of gases

First principle of thermodynamics and its applications

The status and path functions U and H

Thermal capacities

Joule and Joule-Thomson experiences

Applications to chemical reactions

Thermodynamic convention

Second principle of thermodynamics and its applications

Entropy. The functions of free energy status and free enthalpy

The thermodynamic potentials and their properties

The chemical potentials and their properties

Phase transformations

The equilibrium diagrams

The chemical balance

Study of the equilibrium through the thermodynamic potentials

The equilibrium constants and their properties

Van't Hoff's reports

Principle of Le Châtelier-Braun

The rule of the phases according to Gibbs

Third principle of thermodynamics

The ideal solutions and their deviations.

Van't Hoff's reports

Practical form

*Classroom exercises*

The topics covered are simple applications of the foregoing in the theoretical module.

In particular, they will be performed:

Review exercises on the properties of perfect and real gases.

Applications of the 1st law of thermodynamics: examples of enthalpy calculation; Hess law; Kirchhoff equation; Trouton rule; Clasius-Clapeyron equation; Born-Haber cycle. Applications of the 2nd law of thermodynamics: calculation of the entropy variation of a reaction in different thermodynamic conditions; mixture entropy; evaluation of the spontaneity of a reaction; calculation of the Gibbs free energy for transformations in different thermodynamic conditions: use of thermodynamic potentials. Simple applications of the 3rd principle of thermodynamics. Application of the phase rule to the study of one-component state diagrams. Exercises on equilibrium processes in homogeneous chemical reactions with application of the Vant'Hoff equation. Examples of the influence of temperature and pressure on chemical equilibria.

Simple applications of the 3rd principle of thermodynamics.

Application of the phase rule to the study of one-component state diagrams.

Exercises on equilibrium processes in homogeneous chemical reactions with application of the Vant'Hoff equation.

Examples of the influence of temperature and pressure on chemical equilibria.

*Laboratory experiences*

The students, divided into groups, will have to perform the following experiences of thermodynamics:

1. Methods of measurement of temperature

2. Methods of measurement of pressure.

3. Determination of the heat of formation of naphthalene

4. Determination of the heat of vaporization of ethyl alcohol

5. Multiple experience: Consolute temperature of water and phenol system; Enthalpy of neutralization; Determination of the molecular mass of urea by cryoscopy; Determination of the molecular mass of urea or sucrose by lowering the vapor pressure; Determination of the Cp with adiabatic method.

At the end, each group will explore a topic of their choice, among those discussed during the course, and will present it in the form of a short seminar.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

P. Atkins & J. De Paula, Chimica Fisica, Ed. Zanichelli

A. Gambi, Esercizi di Chimica Fisica, Ed. Zanichelli (Physical Chemistry Exercises, in Italian language)

## TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Exam Board

MARIA CARNASCIALI (President)

MARCELLA PANI

PIETRO MANFRINETTI

CRISTINA ARTINI

FABIO MICHELE CANEPA

## LESSONS

Teaching methods

The lecture is divided into: a) presentation of each topic with the support of the slides prepared by the teacher; b) phase of reflection with stimulus questions to understand the degree of learning; c) group work for collaborative exercises. The traditional use of the blackboard is complemented by participative teaching methods such as cooperative learning, peer-evaluation, concept maps, video clips, microteaching, etc.

Laboratory experiences include: group work during the experience, a brief study and a written report. At the end of the course, the students, divided into groups of interest, present in public a chosen topic, coherent with the program.