PHARMACOGNOSY (PCT MD)

PHARMACOGNOSY (PCT MD)

_
iten
Code
80461
ACADEMIC YEAR
2017/2018
CREDITS
5 credits during the 2nd year of 8451 Pharmaceutical chemistry and technology (LM-13) GENOVA

5 credits during the 4th year of 8452 Pharmacy (LM-13) GENOVA

SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
BIO/14
LANGUAGE
Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
GENOVA (Pharmaceutical chemistry and technology)
semester
1° Semester
Prerequisites

OVERVIEW

The course aims at characterizing the main derivatives of natural origin, taking an overview of their active constituents with particular attention to the therapeutic/toxic effects that take place both at the cellular level and in the different organ systems such as the central nervous system, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory system and skin, describing also what are the molecular mechanisms related at the basis of their therapeutic application.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The general principles of pharmacognosy are described. The main vegetable drugs are described with particular reference to those found in the European and Italian Pharmacopoeia.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The main purposes of the course are: i) to provide the concepts and basics for recognition and knowledge of drugs derived from natural sources, in particular obtained from plants, minerals and animals, ii) to discuss the pharmacological (both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects) and the toxicological profiles of their active constituents, iii) to evaluate their therapeutic use in clinical as well as their potential application in industry and research processes.

Teaching methods

The teaching program will be fully developed within a total of 20 classes of 2 hours .

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Introduction to pharmacognosy, definition and classification of natural derivates (from plants, animals, and minerals). The course will outline the factors that affect the variability of the active components content in natural derivates. Natural factors: endogenous or genetic factors, exogenous or environmental factors. artificial factors: the collection and balsamic period, the preparation and preservation by dehydration processes or enzymatic inactivation. Alterations of drugs obtained from natural derivates.
Overview of the methods of preservation and analysis of drugs obtained from natural derivates, the quality control before marketing and labeling data of the packaging.

General pharmacology. Diagram of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therapeutic effect, side effect, and the toxic effect. Mechanisms of interaction between active compounds from natural derivates and synthetic drugs.

Natural constituents that act on the central and peripheral nervous system. Natural constituents with sympathetic and parasympathetic effects. Natural constituents with neuro-stimulating activities, antidepressant, analgesic, anesthetic, anxiolytic, sedative, hallucinogen, and psychedelic effects, drug of abuse.

Active natural compounds that affect the cardio-circulatory apparatus. Natural compounds with cardiotonic activity, vasoactive and vasoprotectors, anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, haemostatic antihaemorrhagic.

Background of immune function and natural immunomodulatory compounds and their mechanism of action, substances with adaptogenic activities.

Compounds of natural origin which act on the gastrointestinal apparatus. Constituents with eupeptic and mucose-protective activities, choleretic and cholagogues, antispasmodic and carminative, laxatives, anti-diarrheal and  constituents with hypocholesterolemic effetcs.

Ouverview of natural compounds with antiparasitic activity, anti-protozoal, anthelmintics, anti-malarials, antibiotics.
Natural compounds that affect the respiratory system. Expectorants, mucolytics and emollients, balsamic and antiseptic, bronchodilators and anti-asthmatics.

Active constituents of natural origins that affect the genitourinary apparatus. Antiseptic and diuretic, the main phytoestrogens compounds.

Compounds of natural origin which act on the muscle-skeletal apparatus and skin. Natural constituents with anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and revulsive activity.

Compounds of natural origin with antitumor activity.

Compounds of natural origin used in cosmetic preparation for preservatives, antiseptic, emollient as well as UV-filters.

Probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals.

Pharmacovigilance and phytovigilance notions.

Outlines of biotechnological and natural toxins derived.

Overview of alternative medicine of natural origins.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

- Farmacognosia. Botanica, chimica e farmacologia delle piante medicinali, (F. Capasso); SPRINGER EDITOR.

- Farmacognosia Generale e Applicata, (A. Bruni); PICCIN EDITOR.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Ricevimento: The Lecturer is always available to receive the students after appointment to be agreed by mail (milanese@difar.unige.it) or by telephone 0103532046

Exam Board

MARCO MILANESE (President)

ANNA MARIA PITTALUGA

LUCA RAITERI

MANUELA MARCOLI

MASSIMO GRILLI

TIZIANA BONIFACINO

CHIARA CERVETTO

ERNESTO FEDELE

GIAMBATTISTA BONANNO

LESSONS

Teaching methods

The teaching program will be fully developed within a total of 20 classes of 2 hours .

EXAMS

Exam description

The examination consists in an oral session. The examination board is always composed by two lecturers (in case of necessity, the examination is conducted by the lecturer and by a graduate student/ postdoc-fellow, recognized by the Department Committee) and it lasts from 20 up to a maximum of 40 minutes. The exam questions relate to matters dealt during the lectures and allow the board to verify the achievement of the educational objectives of teaching.

Assessment methods

The final mark will take into account the level of competence acquired, the reasoning  and correlation between the different topics of the program and the proper scientific language used during the interview. If the evaluation criteria are not achieved sufficiently, the student will be rejected and invited to deepen the study, using, if necessary, further explanation by the lecturer.